A Secure Electronic Voting System Using Decentralized Computing

Introduction

In every single democracy, the voting system is of topmost priority, as a threat to it is a threat to the nation’s security. Using blockchain technology in the field of voting, the main goal is to minimize the cost of the whole election process. While making this voting procedure reliable and efficient, we can replace the traditional voting system, which is viewed as flawed. Electronic voting and online surveys are a few ways to learn the opinions of the people.

Computer technology has come a long way in previous decades. Electronic voting machines (EVMs) are being viewed as flawed because of the physical concern that poses a threat to the votes being cast and also to the secrecy of voting [1]. Electronic voting systems are facing a threat from various hackers. It is difficult to remove scams from happening to e-voting and it is also very difficult to perform the high cost of data cleanup after the system has been hacked. Hacking even a single system will be viewed as the failure of the entire voting system and also the citizens will worry about their anonymity being compromised, thereby questioning the integrity of the system.

An electronic voting system should be capable of performing authentication, it should provide transparency, it should protect the anonymity of the people casting vote, and in the end it should provide us with correct and accurate results.

There is a great deal of research going on regarding the adoption of blockchain technology into electronic voting. Japan is the first country to lead this research to implement their country’s voting system and transform it into a blockchain electronic voting system. Other countries are leading the way, too.

A blockchain is a ledger that stores transaction details/data and is public, distributed, immutable, and peer-to-peer. It has a few main features:

  • (i) As the ledger is peer-to-peer, there is no single point, i.e., the ledger is present in dissimilar locations so there is no doubt of failing of the process at a single point and maintenance is easy.
  • (ii) The control is distributed.
  • (iii) Whenever we create a new block, it is the citation of the foregoing version of the ledger that creates an unchangeable chain. This prevents tampering with blockchain integrity.
  • (iv) When adding the new blocks to the blockchain, consensus algorithms must be followed to make the proposed new block a permanent part of the ledger.

Background and Motivation

There are a few basic principles of voting:

  • Secret ballot: Your vote is secret. No one should be ready to connect your vote back to your private profile.
  • One vote per person: each elector votes once and therefore the election commission should be ready to adapt the heterogeneity of voters, the votes, and people wfio failed to vote [2].
  • Elector eligibility: Only the citizens who have been verified as the citizens of a country and have the right to vote are eligible.
  • Transparency: Tallying of votes must be transparent, i.e., government should show who has won and how many votes acquired on their behalf so that citizens are well aware of this.
  • Votes are accurately recorded: Vote tally is congruous. The total tally of votes is revealed to the public and the result, once stated, cannot be changed.

• Reliability: The system has to be reliable and should keep fraud from occurring as well as stop various security violations.

We have to keep this in mind that these are the main principles that we have followed up to now in our mainstream e-voting systems. We also need to implement these principles in case we make a new one.

Blockchain will solve the numerous issues discovered in these early attempts to make an e-voting system. A blockchain DApp does not concern the safety of the net affiliation, as any hacker with access to the end node will not be able to have an effect on different nodes. Voters can submit their vote without revealing their name or political preferences. Admins will count votes with complete confidence, knowing that every ID attribute to at least one vote, and no more than one that means meddling is not possible.

Now, if we use blockchain, we will have to make a ballot that implements proper voting procedures. This should adhere to the following points.

14.2.1 Secret Ballot

In the ballot contract, only pocketbook addresses and names are noted. Each elector is known by their MetaMask pocketbook address. Apart from the chairman, the one that created the new instance of the ballot contract, nobody else will be able to tell how they voted.

The votes array is asserted non-publicly; therefore, nobody will be able to browse the contents of the votes array.

The reality could be a very little a lot of difficult than this. On a blockchain, even non-public variables are unit clear if you are attempting to read clearly enough. For this to really be non-public, users of the contract can have to be compelled to code the values before writing them to the good contract (encryption).

14.2.2 One Man, One Vote

The voter array stores an inventory of voters that have voted. It ensures that nobody will vote a second time. Once an elector votes, his standing changes to “voted” and the ballot contract checks to confirm that they do not vote again.

14.2.3 Voter Eligibility

Voter eligibility is decided by collecting an array of pocketbook addresses before the proof of voting begins.

The voter’s address must match the one that the chairman registers before the process begins. However, if a voter’s MetaMask pocketbook is taken, then someone else can vote on their behalf. However, on a blockchain, the important factor is the wallet’s non-public key.

But how will the chairman make sure that that it is the correct person who is casting the vote? Facial recognition? Yes, to vote as long as you pass a fingerprint or biometric authentication check, this can work.

14.2.4 Transparency

Transparency relates to the things that blockchain always does by default. Each action taken and each record saved on the blockchain is changeless, i.e., can’t be changed whatsoever if the contract is deployed.

14.2.5 Votes Accurately Recorded and Counted

In Smart contract, the ballot goes through many states, from creation of the ballot, to where we cast the votes, to the closing of the ballot and the final counting of votes.

In each of these states, the contract dictates what the chairman and voters are allowed or not allowed to perform.

14.2.6 Reliability

There is no single location of failure on a blockchain as each node wfithin the chain participates to keep the blockchain running. If Smart contract is deployed on the blockchain is changeless. The business logic of the good contract once deployed is forged in stone. There’s no way the chairperson will amend the principles, say, from one-man-one-vote to one-man-two-vote once the contract is deployed.

 
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