# Extreme Waves and Shock-Excited Processes in Structures and Space Objects: Volume II

I. Basic Models, Equations, and IdeasModels of ContinuumThe System of Equations of Mechanics Continuous MediumState (Constitutive) Equations for Elastic and Elastic–Plastic BodiesThe Equations of Motion and the Wide-Range Equations of State of an Inviscid FluidSimplest Example of Fracture of Media within Rarefaction ZonesThe State Equation for Bubbly LiquidFracture (Cold Boiling) of Water During SeaquakesModel of Fracture (Cold Boiling) of Bubbly LiquidModels of Moment and Momentless ShellsShallow Shells and the Kirchhoff–Love HypothesesThe Timoshenko Theory of Thin Shells and Momentless ShellsThe Dynamic Destruction of Some Materials in Tension WavesModels of Dynamic Failure of Solid MaterialsPhenomenological ApproachMicrostructural ApproachModels of Interacting Voids (Bubbles, Pores)Pore on Porous MaterialsMathematical Model of Materials Containing PoresModels of Dynamic Failure of Weakly Cohesived Media (WCM)IntroductionExamples of Gassy Material PropertiesBehavior of Weakly Cohesive Geomaterials within Extreme WavesModeling of Gassy MediaState Equation for Condensed Matter–Gas MixtureStrongly Nonlinear Model of the State Equation for Gassy MediaThe Tait-Like Form of the State EquationWave Equations for Gassy MaterialsEffects of Bubble Oscillations on the One-Dimensional Governing EquationsDifferential Form of the State EquationThe Strongly Nonlinear Wave Equation for Bubbly MediaLinear Acoustics of Bubbly MediaThree-Speed Wave EquationsTwo-Speed Wave EquationsOne-Speed Wave EquationsInfluence of Viscous Properties on the Sound Speed of Magma-like MediaExamples of Observable Extreme Waves of WCMMount St Helens EruptionThe Volcano Santiaguito EruptionsNonlinear Acoustic of Bubble MediaLow-Frequency Waves: Boussinesq and Long-Wave EquationsHigh-Frequency Waves: Klein–Gordon and Schrödinger EquationsStrongly Nonlinear Airy-Type Equations and Remarks to Chapters 1–3ReferencesII. Extreme Waves and Structural ElementsExtreme Effects and Waves in Impact-Loaded Hydrodeformable SystemsIntroductionUnderwater Explosions and Extreme Waves of the Cavitation: ExperimentsExperimental Studies of Formation and Propagation of the Cavitation WavesElastic Plate–Underwater Wave InteractionElastoplastic Plate–Underwater Wave InteractionExtreme Underwater Wave and Plate InteractionEffects of DeformabilityEffects of Cavitation on the Plate SurfaceEffects of Cavitation in the Liquid Volume on the Plate–Liquid InteractionEffects of PlasticityModeling of Extreme Wave Cavitation and Cool Boiling in TanksImpact Loading of a TankImpact Loading of Liquid in a TankShells and Cavitation (Cool Boiling) WavesInteraction of a Cylindrical Shell with Underwater Shock Wave in LiquidExtreme Waves in Cylindrical Elastic ContainerEffects of Cavitation and Cool Boiling on the Interaction of ShellsFeatures of Bubble Dynamics and Their Effect on ShellsExtreme Wave Phenomena in the Hydro-Gas-Elastic SystemEffects of Boiling of Liquids Within Rarefaction Waves on the Transient Deformation of Hydroelastic SystemsA Method of Solving Transient Three-Dimensional Problems of Hydroelasticity for Cavitating and Boiling LiquidsGoverning EquationsNumerical MethodResults and DiscussionInteraction of Extreme Underwater Waves with StructuresFracture and Cavitation Waves in Thin-Plate/Underwater Explosion SystemFracture and Cavitation Waves in Plate/Underwater Explosion SystemGeneration of Cavitation Waves after Tank Bottom BucklingTransient Interaction of a Stiffened Spherical Dome with Underwater Shock WavesThe Problem and Method of SolutionNumeric Method of Problem SolutionResults of CalculationsExtreme Amplicafition of Waves at Vicinity of the Stiffening RibReferencesIII. Counterintuitive Behavior of Structural Elements after Impact LoadsExperimental DataIntroduction and Method of Impact LoadingCIB of Circular Plates: Results and DiscussionCIB of Rectangular Plates and Shallow CapsDiscussion of CIB of Shallow CapsCap/Permeable Membrane SystemCIB of PanelsCIB of Plates and Shallow Shells: Theory and CalculationsDistinctive Features of CIB of Plates and Shallow ShellsInvestigation TechniquesResults and Discussion: Plates, Spherical Caps, and Cylindrical PanelsInfluences of Atmosphere and Cavitation on CIBTheoretical ModelsCalculation DetailsResults and DiscussionReferencesIV. Extreme Waves Excited by Impact of Heat, radiation, or MassForming and Amplifying of Heat WavesLinear Analysis – Influence of HyperbolicityForming and Amplifying Nonlinear Heat WavesStrong Nonlinearity of Thermodynamic Function as a Cause of Formation of Cooling Shock WaveConclusionsExtreme Waves Excited by Radiation ImpactImpulsive Deformation and Destruction of Bodies at Temperatures below the Melting PointThermoelastic Waves Excited by Long-Wave RadiationThermoelastic Waves Excited by Short-Wave RadiationStress and Fracture Waves in Metals During Rapid Bulk HeatingOptimization of the Outer Laser-Induced SpallingEffects of Melting of Material under Impulse LoadingMathematical Model of Fracture under Thermal Force LoadingAlgorithm and ResultsModeling of Fracture, Melting, Vaporization, and Phase TransitionCalculations: Effects of TemperatureCalculations: Effects of VaporizationCalculations: Effect of Vaporization on SpallingTwo-Dimensional Fracture and EvaporationFracture of Solid by Radiation Pulses as a Method of Ensuring Safety in SpaceIntroductionMathematical Formulation of the ProblemCalculation Results and Comparison with ExperimentsSpecial Features of Fracture by SpallingEfficiency of Laser FractureDiscussion and ConclusionConclusionReferenceMelting Waves in Front of a Massive PerforatorExperimental InvestigationNumerical ModelingResults of the Calculation and DiscussionReferences