# Applied Methodology

2.1 Introduction

The materials and methods used in the theoretical section of the research consist of data collection tools, reference books, and articles as well as written reports issued by the Iranian Centre for Defense Standards. The method for practical research that follows assessed the manufacturing industries belonging to some selected industries of the Defense Industries Organization (DIO). Moreover, questionnaires were used and administered among representative managers of the DIO. Exploratory interviews were also conducted.

2.2 Research Limitations

The protective measures enforced by defense organizations for security or other reasons are an indispensable part of their procedures. This feature has always been a limiting factor in the flow of information in the defense departments even among its own staff. That is, the classified nature of the information is strictly preserved. That is why it was not possible to study the audit reports of the Iranian Centre for Standardization outside the DIO or other defense agencies and subsidiaries of the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Logistics.

2.3 Statistical Population of the Research

The statistical population of this research is made up of some selected industries affiliated with the DIO. The quantitative characteristics of the statistical society are as follows:

• • The sample size of the statistical population is 26 persons selected from management representatives of different industries
• • Significant level = 0.05
• • Test power = 80%
• • The average effect volume = 50%

It should be noted that this productive and sustainable model of quality engineering techniques (QET) has been deployed in one industry, but, for assessing the model, our questionnaires were distributed among the 26 management representatives of the industries related to the DIO. In this study the following formula is used to determine the sample size required for the statistical assumptions on the mean value of the statistical population that follows (see Table 2.1).

The following figures show the personal characteristics of the statistical population (see Figures 2.1 to 2.6).

TABLE 2.1

Formula Description

 Symbols Description «-sample size The volume of the effect Coefficient corresponding to a significant level of a in the distribution to the norm Coefficient corresponding to the probability of the second type error p

FIGURE 2.1 Distribution diagram of a statistical sample in terms of education.

FIGURE 2.2 Distribution diagram of a statistical sample in terms of organizational positions.

FIGURE 2.3 Distribution diagram of a statistical sample in terms of work experience in quality fields.

FIGURE 2.4 Distribution diagram of a statistical sample in terms of familiarity with quality

systems.

FIGURE 2.5 Distribution diagram of a statistical sample in terms of familiarity with QET.

FIGURE 2.6 Distribution diagram of a statistical sample in terms of product volume.

2.4 Data Collection Tools and Methods

Questionnaires were administered among the 26 representative managers of the DIO. Exploratory interviews were also included.

2.5 Data Collection Validity

The validity of this research was ascertained drawing upon expert opinion (including that of industrial advisers, lead auditors of the Iranian Center for Defense Standards, and university professors).

2.6 Data Collection Reliability

To determine the reliability of this research, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used.

2.7 Information Analysis Method

The data was analyzed through questionnaires and the reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and SPSS software. However, in order to prepare appropriate and applicable statistical tables, we have exploited Excel software and Minitab applications.

Exercise

2.1. What exactly is the difference between validity and reliability in any research?

# Proposed Model in Triple Organizational Processes

## Introduction

This chapter presents the findings of the research. We are concerned with traditional processes in the majority of organizations. The main proposed model of quality engineering techniques (QET) is introduced in the section related to all processes accompanied by instructive detailed examples of these applications.

The needed formulas related to all statistical calculations have been extracted from two brilliant references (main reference books) that have been used by many scholars (Montgomery, 1996a) (Montgomery, 1996b).

## Identification and Determination of Three Types of Processes in Industrial Factories

Traditionally, there are triple processes in the industrial factories of Defense Industries Organization (DIO) in Iran. They are as follows:

• • Main processes
• • Leadership processes
• • Support processes

Main processes in Quality Management Systems (QMS) based on ISO9001 play a vital role in meeting the basic requirements expressed in relevant standards.

Leadership processes in Quality Management Systems (QMS) based on ISO9001 play an important role in achieving organizational goals. These processes have the key responsibilities of managing and leading all defined processes.

Support processes in Quality Management Systems (QMS) based on ISO9001 have a supportive role in all processes belonging to the different levels of each organization.

These three types of processes are displayed in Figure 3.1 (based on ISO9001).

FIGURE 3.1 Three types of processes for industrial factories in DIO.