The Role of Social media
According to Seligman (1992: ix), the idea of social media has its roots in the traditions of Western politics. Lewis states that social media was introduced after the Cold War as a strategy by policymakers to strengthen democracy and development. Howell and Pearce show that social media established itself at the beginning of the 21st century as an important concept in the field of policy development and practice. Whitfield states that the origin of social media was as a theoretical construct used to understand phenomena, rather than as an object of research. Furthermore, Whitfield (2002:5) conceptualizes social media in two ways, namely as an idea and as a process. Social media as an idea is perceived as a united entity that is separate from the state and that has a relationship with democracy. Secondly, as a process, it involves historical issues, personal social media, external influences, international relations, and lastly, incentives involved in politics and resources.
13.6.1 Conceptualization of Social media
Glasius, Kaldor, and Anheier view the role of social media as involving three dimensions, namely new public management and welfare of the state; social capital and participation; and lastly, an instrument of achieving transparency, accountability, and improved governance. Similarly, Edwards states that social media has three developmental roles, namely the economic role, which secures livelihoods and provides services where the state is weak; the social role, whereby it becomes a pool of caring, intellectual innovation, and cultural life; and lastly, the political role, which involves promoting accountability, transparency, and good governance.
Conceptual Frame work
The conceptual framework of any study is its summarized form given in the schematic diagram. It establishes the relationship between the independent and dependent variables used in the chapter. In this study, the given independent variables and dependent variables have been used.
The resource dependency theory, as stated by Davis and Cobb, revolves around three main ideas, namely the importance of social contexts; strategies used by organizations to enhance their self-reliance and pursue interests; and lastly, the importance of power in understanding external and internal activities of organizations. According to Davis and Cobb, power is something that distinguishes the resource dependency theory from other approaches.
Similarly, Pfeiffer perceives power as “the basic energy to initiate and sustain action translating into reality”. In other words, in structures that do not have hierarchies as a way of getting things done, power is an important tool to get ideas implemented. According to Hillman, Withers, and Collins, in the resource dependency theory, the issue of power is important for controlling vital resources. Organizations often try to reduce others’ power over them by increasing their own power showing supremacy over others.
The policy collaboration approach, according to Klijn, was strongly affected by the resource dependency approach and the concept that organizational social media can be studied in the context of organizational problems or resources. The resource dependency theory is concerned with the exchange processes between organizations, whereby organizations get certain resources from other organizations. Sharing and exchanging resources is a rationale behind creating policy social media. These resources may include money, staff, or services. Hearn and Mendizabal also state that another function of social media is mobilizing resources to maintain resource dependency. Some of these resources include funding and services that improve the work of actors through capacity development.
Impact of Social Media on Customer Relationship
Social media, according to Kickert, Kljin, and Koppenjan, are characterized by actors who are part of a collaboration as well as the relations these actors have with each other. In other words, policy outcomes are a result of the actors’ relationships within the collaboration. Important relationships are between the structure of the collaboration and the participants in the collaboration; the collaboration and its political and socioeconomic contexts; and lastly, the policy collaboration and the outcome. Furthermore, policy social media are also characterized by their non-hierarchical perception of the policymaking process.
Impact of Social Media on Brand Name
Social media play a key role in implementation. Pressman and Wildavsky state that policy implementation depends on complex chains of joint interactions. Similarly, O’Toole, Hanf, and Hupe argue that actors involved in implementation are not only drawn from government units but rather may also come from other actors outside the government. The term social media can be used to refer to these actors extending beyond those included in the normal style of delivery which works from the center.
In other words, the term social media can be used in implementation to describe a team that consists of both government and non-government actors who attempt to implement a certain policy. With these said, however, Marsh and Smith argue that, generally, there is not much agreement concerning the nature and role of social media. However, the creation of social media across different organizational levels, according to Sandstrom and Carlsson, is necessary because social media could lead to more effective public management. The importance of social media, according to Sandstrom and Carlsson (2008:507), is that they form part of a continuous process of building and rebuilding institutional arrangements, but they also affect policymaking and society in general.