Smart Home (Domotics)

After studying this chapter, you should be able to understand the concept of the smart home, its emergence and its definition, dimensions, and components in detail. Adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) in automation is also explained in detail, along with design strategies. In the last section, various issues and challenges, associated with smart homes and different apps, are also discussed in detail. With the assistance of the IoT, we will be looking at the cutting edge innovations that we have encountered or forward to the future ideas that will change our everyday home lives into smart home living. Since its inception, the smart home concept has developed from the execution of explicit tasks to the use of procedures to handle more extensive city challenges worldwide. So, we need to study the concept of the smart home in light of various issues, their challenges and different applications of the smart home idea.


The IoT involves utilizing various sorts of devices, made by various manufacturers and having different features. From its origins, which focused on individual improvements to the conventional home, exploiting the potential of IoT, the smart home concept has developed from the single building to the development of communities, capable of handling the issues associated with the challenges faced by city living. These days, home automation or robotization frameworks are being utilized to an ever-increasing extent, with many people becoming interested in making their homes more user friendly and secure. On one hand, these frameworks provide increased security and peace of mind; on the other hand, these frameworks, when presented as business structures, improve not only security and comfort, but also permit centralized management. Therefore, these systems contribute to overall reductions in cost and increases in energy and resource efficiency, which are really important issues nowadays.

Some current smart home frameworks depend on wired innovation; a standard automation or robotization framework does not take long to install if the framework has been planned prior to the build and inserted throughout the development of the building. If an existing building needs to have the automation system retrofitted, this needs a lot of effort and cost, since cabling is critical and costly. Wireless systems could assist here. In recent years, different wireless advances have occurred. Frameworks dependent on wireless advances are being utilized each day and everywhere. A comparative review of wireless norms has been carried out, and such information will provide significant help to anybody looking for the most appropriate framework for given tasks.

Concept of Smart Home

A smart or sensible home allows users to achieve increased resource efficiency and make financial savings by managing lights, window covers, and by monitoring. Various technologies from the smart phone have extended the users’ interest in management of major devices. The machine-manageable device allows users to perform tasks before reaching the home/office. A smart home system provides solutions for particular tasks using various technologies, particularly valuable for the physically disabled or older, less able people, using smart phone apps. According to a report, almost 70% respondents said that self-adjusting thermostats and doors that could be locked remotely from a distant location are the most important functions among the smart home gadgets.

The key advantage, resulting in the home-owner inclining toward this system over equivalent non-smart sorts of devices, is that the alerts sent by the smaller-scale controller associated with Wi-Fi are regularly received by the user or customer on the phone from any distance, whereas long-range interpersonal communication sites like Twitter can additionally be exploited to send message alarms to the client.

A smart home system manages the integrated systems in the home. The modules in these systems are managed by users using interface devices like a smart phone. The project emphasizes essential aspects of our everyday lives. Various sensors could be managed and monitored and can be adjusted easily. The system can be accessed locally or remotely from any versatile or hand-held device associated with the web. Wi-Fi development is selected to be the framework establishment that interfaces the server witli the sensors. Wi-Fi is selected to update the framework security and to extend system flexibility and versatility. The home mechanization framework has the ability to deal with the following sectors in the client’s home and to send alerts: temperature, motion detection, fire and smoke identification, lights, fans, air conditioner system, water-pump, and so forth. The framework has a straightforward plan and program, and it requires hardly any input from the client, yet it is customized for the client’s individual needs.

Needs of a Smart Home

The primary objective of a smart home system, using IoT, is one which is capable of managing household appliances through an easily handled interface, providing an automated system to manage home devices wirelessly, effectively, and efficiently, with the following goals:

i. To deliver an uninterrupted output.

ii. To manage home devices via a button.

iii. To manage the system through Wi-Fi.

iv. To offer an extensible platform for future expansion and enhancement.

v. To optimize a critical monitoring system.

We are living in a time with so many technological advancements, which make our lives simpler; this is a blessing, considering the fast-paced lives most of us lead. In short, the technology allows the home user to manage his/her home even when away via a smart-phone or an iPad. A number of reasons for adopting a smart home are listed below, with ways they could benefit us (Figure 11.1):

i. Safety and peace of mind:

ii. Security and access management

iii. Energy efficiency

iv. Comfort and well-being

v. Convenience and efficiency

Smart Home Outcomes and Deliverables

The following are the outcomes of the smart home system, which are designed based on the requirements and specifications of the client:

i. Flexibility for new appliances and devices: Smart frameworks will, in general, be versatile with regard to the accommodation of new devices and technological advances. It does not make a difference with respect to how dynamic your devices are these days, as there will be more up-to-date, progressively noteworthy models created in the future.

ii. Maximizing home security: When fusing security and surveillance is included in the smart home system, security should soar. There are huge numbers of alternatives possible, several of which are now being investigated.

A smart home

FIGURE 11.1 A smart home

iii. Remote oversight: Managing all at-home devices from one location, the comfort issue is enormous. Having the alternative to keep the sum of the advances in your home controlled by one interface could be a gigantic step forward for development and domestic organization.

iv. Extend effectiveness: Depending on how we design a smart home, it is possible to make it able to face future threats and development better.

The Emergence and Definition of the Smart Home

In this section, the smart home framework, the apparatuses, the various capacities, prerequisites, and different variables, are discussed to give a thorough portrayal of the smart home framework.

11.2.1 Existing System and Solutions

The current IR or Bluetooth remote oversights present in the market are, by and large, device specific, and the equivalent devices couldn’t be utilized properly. The frameworks dependent on Global System for Mobile (GSM) are expensive and similarly moderate in terms of the devices which can be controlled. Electrical devices which are controlled through Bluetooth cannot be supervised from a distant location. The problem with current home security/observation systems is also associated with the fact that clients are frequently away from home for long periods (Table 11.1).

TABLE 11.1

Literature Survey and Findings

Paper Title




Smart home research for the elderly and the disabled

AI. Machine Learning

Studies human neurology via machine learning and acts via AI

Vancouver. BC. Canada

Agriculture monitoring system


Temperature and soil moisture monitoring process, using Android-based smart phone

N. M. Z. Hashim. S. R. Mazlan Centre for Telecommunication Research & Innovation (CeTRI)

Smart home activities

Electric power components and systems

Electric power components and system, using Android-based smart phone

University of Waterloo. Waterloo. Canada

Control home appliances from the internet, using Arduino and Wi-Fi

Arduino. Wireless

Control of home apparatuses from anywhere in the world, via the internet.

Rajeev Ranjan. Shambhoo Kumar

Ageing and technology: a review of the research literature

AT and ICT intervent ions Z-wave, Zig-Bee

These frameworks offer individuals, who are less mobile or in poor health, the chance to be more independent, instead of remaining in a supported-living room.

Christina M. Blaschke. Erin E. Mullen. The British Journal of Social Work. Volume 39

Smart home automation security

Bluetooth. GSM. GPRS. RFID

Security flaws in existing home automation systems.

Arun Cyril Jose. Reza Malekian. University of Pretoria. South Africa

Analytical framework for research on smart homes and their users


The expository system, connections between explored subjects and customs

T. Hargreaves and C. Wilson. Smart Homes and Their Users Human-Computer Interaction Series

Mobile-based home automation using the Internet of Things (IoT)

Bluetooth, IoT, Mobile computing

Smart home computerization idea, utilizing minimal effort of the Arduino board

Kumar Mandula. Ramu Parupalli. CH.A.S. Murty. E. Magesh. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing

Communication and control for a home automation system

Arduino. AI

This project controls with the help of the sound of the robot

C. Douligeris; J. Khawand; C. Khawand Dept, of Electr. & Comput. Eng.. Miami Univ.. Coral Gables. FL. USA

Greenhouse automation


Optimization of environmental conditions for better plant growth

Y.R. Dhumal, J.S Chitode Electronics Department and Bharati Vidyapeeth University.

Smart home research


Maximum implementation on a low budget

Li Jiang; Da-You Liu: Bo Yang. Shanghai. China

11.2.2 Identified Problems

A major issue recognized in past investigations into the existing smart home framework is that, in the GSM-based framework, in the event that General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is not accessible, the system will not work. Most of the current smart home systems use the GPRS structure, which is expensive. Some frameworks use Wi-Fi connections, yet, for the most part, they use Raspberry Pi for computing, the cost of which is also exorbitant. All things considered, the home computerization or robotization system does not offer some obvious options like management of outside lights.

11.2.3 Tools and Technologies Used

There are various strategies to regulate home devices, such as IoT-based home mech- anization/robotization over the cloud, home computerization under Wi-Fi through the use of any cell phone, Arduino-based home automation and robotization, using progressed supervision, and radio frequency (RF)-based home robotization structures (Table 11.2).

There are different Wi-Fi innovations like Wi-Fi 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.1 lg and

  • 802.1 In. Compared to other wireless communication techniques, NodeMCU possesses the benefits listed below:
    • a) Low energy consumption;
    • b) Low cost;
    • c) Flexible
    • d) Fast, easy deployment
    • e) Security
    • f) Product interoperability;
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