Design and Components of Smart Home System

The smart home system consists of micro-controllers and sensors connected by way of the internet, to access home devices remotely via an application. Message alerts

TABLE 11.2

Consolidated Comparison Reports of all Systems




Number of Devices











Bluetooth instructions





Phone based

Phone lines






Radio. IR

Contingent upon range and spectrum of waves




(regarding the current status of modules) will be prompted and also the user will get updates through Twitter. The user could give manual instructions as well as voice instructions to manage home devices.

The framework is made up of one master or ace module and numerous slave modules. A test run has been carried out with one smaller-scale ace controller, and miniaturized slave controllers. The miniaturized ace controller makes it conceivable to deal with each module in the family unit, whereas the smaller-scale slave controllers adhere to directions given from the ace. The ace module has route catches; the ace module is introduced on the client’s process and data automation (PDA), from which the client could deal with all the other slave modules, the number and dispersion of which are dependent entirely upon the client. Slave modules are recognized by their ‘slave ID’ number. The individual slave modules are indistinguishable, in terms of both the equipment and the programming. This strategy is exceptionally basic and makes manual ‘reconstructing’ of the slave modules conceivable, without alteration to the module’s product (Figure 11.2).

The user needs to first register instructions to take control of the devices. After signing in, the user could choose to either update or simply view the current status of a particular device. Each device is assigned some trigger values for turning them on/off or to manage them. The user could also add further devices and manage them by an app or through voice instructions. A notification message or update is sent to the user via Twitter. The smart home system also provides a method to update the social media site.

Environmental, Economic and Societal Benefits

There are several benefits, which are listed below and illustrated in Figure 11.3:

i. Saving Energy and Increasing Comfort: There are numerous motivations to utilize a smart home framework; however, probably the best explanation is that it helps to save energy. A home that saves energy is not just going to help the client save money but it also contributes toward securing the Earth by utilizing less of the world’s limited resources. It might be difficult to accept, yet utilizing less energy could really improve your peace of mind. Using a smart home framework, you could oversee everything remotely, which means that, when you’re not home, you could switch off any device by means of your PDA. Also, you could simply switch them back on when you need them.

ii. Heating and Cooling: One of the best aspects of owning a smart home framework is having the option to oversee and program your indoor environment remotely. An appropriate home framework system could take in environmental data and manage the temperature, etc. as necessary. Associated indoor regulators will utilize data on parameters like relative humidity, outdoor air temperature, whether the house is occupied or not, energy cost, and dampness to give you the most agreeable indoor temperature.

System flowchart of a smart home

FIGURE 11.2 System flowchart of a smart home

iii. Lights: Ever go out and realize in the car on the way to work that you had left the lights on? In the event that you have a smart home framework, you could switch off the lights before you even finish your journey. Your advanced mobile phone could deal w'ith any light in the house, allowing you to save energy that you w'ould prefer not to waste.

Benefits of smart homes

FIGURE 11.3 Benefits of smart homes

iv. Devices and Electronics: Many of your home’s devices don’t have to run throughout the day, which would expend a lot of energy. Such energy wastage costs the client money and damages nature and the environment. A smart home framework gives you oversight over all the hardware and electrical devices. When you aren’t using these things, there’s no purpose in them being on, consuming energy. You may be astonished by how much energy you utilize each day, and how much your energy use can be reduced by including and using a smart home framework.

Climate change is a growing problem that requires immediate and aggressive solution. Using smart home automation technology, millions of homes around the world could contribute to bringing about positive environmental change. Many smart home devices could also help consumers make well-informed decisions when buying new appliances.

Smart Home Architecture

The smart home mechanization/robotization system involves three essential modules: the server, the hardware interface module, and the software package. The customer may use an appropriate device with which to log-in to the server application. If the server is connected to the web, remote users or customers could experience a rapid response (Figures 11.4 and 11.5).

At the point when the client opens the graphical user interface (GUI) app, he/she sees a primary page alongside a list of devices associated with the organizer box, and barrier insights, regarding their present status. From this list, the client can choose the device he/she needs to oversee. After a device is chosen, the client can see all the highlights associated with that device, that could be modified through that app.

Block diagram of a smart home management system

FIGURE 11.4 Block diagram of a smart home management system

In the wake of altering particular highlights, the client could utilize the “Modify” button to send a report about these changed highlights to the home devices. In addition to making component changes in the devices, the client could likewise utilize “Turn Off” or “Turn On” buttons directly with the device itself or to start-stop its operation over time. As a controller, we are utilizing a peripheral interface controller (PlC)-fueled improvement board to deal with the devices. On this oversight board, the clients can modify the devices as indicated by their needs. These changes should also be carried out, using the app, through the internet. The data are then sent to the framework, which responds to secure the synchronization inside the framework and the controller.

Issues and Challenges of a Smart Home

In researching this literature review, it became apparent that the majority of the literature on smart homes centered around security issues. Discussions of a large number of security issues have been rehashed by various authors over the years. We could find no paper that completely covers the entire architecture of a smart home. In addition, the main issue was to have a low-cost system which was affordable, easy to install, easy to operate, and which could be extended. Home automation systems faces challenges such as the significant expense of-usership and security.

A progressive electronic home automation/robotization framework could be achieved in the future to guarantee high levels of security, which could be overseen, via the web, by means of high-definition HD spy cameras. Alongside this, the framework could be set up in any domestic or work-related building, and could be viewed

Flowchart of the system operation

FIGURE 11.5 Flowchart of the system operation

from any place. The benefits of smart building robotization, listed below', could be particularly useful:

i. The different future applications might be utilized to oversee different family devices via the internet

ii. Industrial automation and management.

iii. Enhancement of security to cover issues in extremely restricted areas.

iv. Machine-driven fire exit system.

v. Thermostats to manage temperature, change mode, change fan mode to on/ auto/circulate, read, and adjust humidity (Figure 11.6).

The following are the assumptions made for the smart home system:

a) The client will interface w'ith an app, will enter settings to oversee or change the status of devices and to check on their current status.

Issues and challenges of smart homes

FIGURE 11.6 Issues and challenges of smart homes

  • b) If the battery is low, at that point, a warning message will be sent to the client.
  • c) Sensors are exceptionally dependable and work appropriately.
  • d) Moisture sensors sense the dampness level of the soil.
  • e) The system cannot be changed by unapproved persons.
  • f) Security should be ensured, w'ith communication among each of the sensors and modules being carried out easily, wdth no obstruction.
  • g) Only the client’s voice to be recognized and authorized to make changes.


The smart home framework is a secure, universally open, auto-configurable, remotely overseen arrangement requiring minimal effort from the client. The methodology described in this chapter section is novel but has been designed to accomplish the objectives to oversee home devices, by remote use of Wi-Fi, fulfilling the client’s needs. Wi-Fi allows the system to be overseen or modified remotely, provides home security and is “smart”, in comparison with existing home security measures. Subsequently, we can infer that the necessary objectives and goals of the home computerization framework have been accomplished. The framework plan and design have been examined in this chapter, and the model introduces the fundamental degrees of home machine oversight and remote supervision. Finally, the proposed system is better than the commercially available home robotization structures from the points of view of flexibility and versatility.

Future Work

Progressively, the electronic home automation/robotization framework could be expanded in the future to guarantee high security; to carry out smart waste management; distributed storage could be utilized; various social media websites could be utilized to send warnings or to receive messages. Alongside this, the framework could be consolidated in an entire structure of any organization or private structure, and could be viewed remotely from any place. Along these lines, the most favorable circumstances of home computerization/robotization could be achieved, to benefit the client even more.


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