Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis: Drugs, Genetic Diseases, and Epigenetics

Fermentative Production of Vitamin B6IntroductionDe novo Synthesis of Vitamin B6Control of Vitamin B6 HomeostasisEngineering Microorganisms for the Production of B6 VitamersNovel Routes for Vitamin B6 Biosynthesis and ProductionRational Design and Construction of a Vitamin B6-Producing BacteriumAlternative Approaches for Enhancing Vitamin B6 ProductionConclusionsAcknowledgmentReferencesExploring Alternative Taxol Sources: Biocatalysis of 7-β-Xylosyl-10-Deacetyltaxol and Application for Taxol ProductionIntroductionHigh-Cell-Density Fermentation of the Engineered YeastGeneral Fed-Batch HCDF ProcessHCDF Process OptimizationScaling Up HCDF from Pilot Scale to Demonstration/Commercial ScaleBiocatalysis of 7-β-XylosyltaxanesGeneral Biocatalysis ProtocolOptimization of the BiocatalysisScale-Up BiocatalysisOne-Pot Enzymatic Reaction from 7-β-Xylosyl-10-Deacetyltaxol to TaxolReaction System for the BiocatalysisProtein Engineering of the 10-β-AcetyltransferaseSummaryReferencesMolecular Farming through Plant Engineering: A Cost-Effective Approach for Producing Therapeutic and Prophylactic ProteinsIntroductionStrategies for Production of Therapeutics in PlantsStable ExpressionTransient ExpressionPlant-Made VaccinesPlantibodiesConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesMicrobial Biotransformations in the Production and Degradation of Fluorinated PharmaceuticalsIntroductionFluorinated Natural ProductsProduction of Fluorinated Antibiotics in MicroorganismsBiological Production of [18F]-Labelled Compounds for PET AnalysisMicroorganisms that Enable Fluorinated Drug DesignProduction of Fluorinated Drug Metabolites in MicroorganismsMicrobial Degradation of Fluorinated DrugsFuture Prospects and ChallengesReferencesSuccessful Screening of Potent Microorganisms Producing L-AsparaginaseIntroductionPurpose of Screening Prospective Source of L-AsparaginaseDifferent Methods of Screening Potential Sourceof L-AsparaginaseIn silico ApproachDye-Based MethodAssay-Based MethodActivators and Inhibitors of L-AsparaginaseVarious Microbial Sources of L-AsparaginasePharmaceutical Application of L-AsparaginaseConclusionAcknowledgmentReferencesBiotransformation of Xenobiotics in Living Systems—Metabolism of Drugs: Partnership of Liver and Gut MicrofloraIntroductionLiver MetabolismPhase I BiotransformationOxidationsOxidations dependent on CYP450Flavin-containing monooxygenase systemAlcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenaseMonoamine oxidaseReductionsHydrolysisPhase II BiotransformationUridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferasesGlutathione S-transferasesMethyltransferasesN-AcetyltransferasesSulfotransferasesMetabolism of Xenobiotics in GutLuminal and Cell Wall Metabolism of DrugsGut Microflora Implication in Xenobiotic MetabolismReduction of drugs by microbiotaMicrobial metabolism of drugs by hydrolysisConclusionAcknowledgmentReferencesDegradation of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds by White-Rot Fungi and Their Ligninolytic EnzymesIntroductionPhAC Removal by WRF and Their Ligninolytic EnzymesEffect of Fungal SpeciesEffect of Enzyme TypesEffect of PhAC Properties on Their RemovalLaccase-Redox Mediator SystemImpact of Physicochemical Characteristics of WastewaterTreatment of Real Wastewater by WRF and Ligninolytic EnzymesFuture ResearchConclusionAcknowledgmentReferencesRemoval of Pharmaceutical Pollutants from Municipal Sewage Mediated by LaccasesIntroductionPolitical and Societal Framework ConditionsSituation in GermanySituation in SwitzerlandElimination of Pharmaceuticals with Physical and Chemical MethodsUse of Activated CarbonUse of OzonationCombined and Other Treatment ProcessesTheoretical Background and Application of LaccasesOccurrence, Structure and Functionality of LaccasesOrigin and characterizationReaction mechanism and stoichiometrySubstrates and productsInhibition of laccase activityImmobilization types for laccasesLaccase-Mediator-System (LMS)Industrial Use of LaccaseElimination of Pharmaceuticals by the Use of LaccaseComparison of Different Technologies for the Elimination of PharmaceuticalsAssessing the Use of Laccase in Municipal Wastewater TreatmentUse of Native LaccasesUse of Immobilized LaccaseSummary and Conclusions towards Removal of PharmaceuticalsMechanism of Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Future Drug DiscoveryIntroductionDrugs, Targets and Resistance MechanismFuture Drug Discovery and New DrugsConclusionGenome Editing and Gene Therapies: Complex and Expensive DrugsIntroductionSome General AspectsGenome Editing Techniques: FundamentalsZinc Finger NucleasesTALENsCRISPR/Cas SystemsOther applications of CRISPR-systemsTherapeutic Genome EditingHDR-Mediated Genome EditingEx vivo and in vivo Somatic Genome EditingDelivery StrategiesAdeno-associated viral vectorsLentiviral vectorsNanocarrier-based gene/drug deliveryPhysical methodsGenome Editing and Disease ModelsInduced Pluripotent Stem CellsHuman diseases: From 2D to 3D iPSC modelsGenome editing and human iPSCsGenome Editing and DiseasesGenome editing studies in non-clinical development and clinical trialsExamples of non-clinical developmentsInfectious diseasesMonogenic diseasesNeurodegenerative diseasesCAR-T cell therapy and CRISPRGene Therapies without Modifying the Existing DNAGenome Editing-Based Therapeutics in Clinical Trials and Off-Target EffectsOff-target effectsGenome Editing: CommercializationEthical Concerns and Regulatory AspectsSummary and OutlookReferencesEpigenetic and Metabolic Alterations in Cancer Cells: Mechanisms and Therapeutic ApproachesIntroductionEpigenetic Alterations in Human CancersMetabolic Alterations in Human CancersInterplay between Epigenetics and Tumor MetabolismModulation of Epigenetics by Tumor MetabolismAcetyl-CoA Influences Histone AcetylationSAM/SAH Ratio Regulates DNA and Histone MethylationTCA Cycle Metabolites Modulate DNA and Histone DemethylationSuccinate and Fumarate drive DNA/Histone Methylation-Hydroxylglutarate in IDH1/IDH2 Mutant Cancers Drive DNA/Histone MethylationTherapeutic ApproachesConclusionAcknowledgmentReferences
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