Biostimulants for sustainable crop production

Plant biostimulants: a new paradigm for the sustainable intensification of cropsIntroductionThe establishment of the term ‘biostimulant’Plant biostimulants as functional ingredients of fertilizing productsImproving nutrient use efficiencyImproving tolerance to abiotic stressImproving crop qualityImproving the availability of confined nutrients in the soil or rhizosphereIdentifying the bioactive constituents of plant biostimulantsHumic and fulvic acidsSeaweed extractsProtein hydrolysatesMicrobial biostimulantsConclusionAcknowledgmentsWhere to look for further informationReferencesBioactive compounds and evaluation of biostimulant activityIntroductionActive componentsData requirementsMode of actionThe omics approachHormone-like activity and in vitro assaysConclusion and future trendsReferencesNon-microbial and microbial categories of biostimulantsHumic substances (HS) as plant biostimulants in agricultureIntroductionProduction and characteristics of humic substancesHumic substances and plant nutritionEffects of humic substances on soilBiological activities of humic substancesCommercial humates in agricultureConclusionsReferencesSeaweed extracts as plant biostimulants in agricultureIntroductionClassification, legal requirements for biostimulant registration and the biostimulant marketEffects and mode of action of seaweed extracts on plant primary and secondary metabolismPrimary metabolites of seaweedsPlant growth stimulationPlant protecting agentAntibacterial properties of algal extractsEffect of seaweed extracts on plant physiologySeed germinationShoot growthRoot growthFruit setProduct qualityEffects and mode of action of seaweed extracts on abiotic stress tolerance of horticultural and agronomic cropsEffect of seaweed extracts on modulation of the rhizosphere microbial populationConclusionReferencesBiostimulant action of protein hydrolysates on cropsIntroductionBioactive compoundsEffects of protein hydrolysates on germination, growth, and yield of cropsSoil nutrient availability and nutrient-use efficiencyCrop tolerance to abiotic stressProduct qualityConclusion and future trendsWhere to look for further informationAcknowledgementReferencesSilicon as a biostimulant in agricultureIntroductionSilicon availability in fertilizers and growing mediaPlant accumulation, transport and deposition of siliconSi transport via passive and active transport systemsSi location and deposition in plant tissue: beyond biosilicificationSilicon and plant abiotic defense: drought and salinitySilicon and plant abiotic defense: tolerance to heavy metalsSilicon and plant abiotic defense: tolerance to other environmental stressesSilicon and enhanced growthSi and hormonal influencesEffects of Si on germination and enhanced growthSi and micropropagationSilicon and phytotoxicityRegulatory issuesSummary and future trendsEffect of Si on plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria and other beneficial microbesSeeing past silicic acid: availability and mobility of silica nanoparticlesEnhancing Si accumulation in lower accumulatorsSi biofortification of foodsAbbreviationsWhere to look for further informationReferencesPlant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as plant biostimulants in agricultureIntroductionPlant growth promotionPlant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and abiotic stressPlant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) against biotic stressMicrobe-microbe interactionsProduction of antibioticsCompetition for resourcesMicroba-to-plant signallingSpecialized antimicrobial compound production by plantsDangers of assuming the effectors or mechanisms are knownRoot exudatesInterspecific and intraspecific microbial interactions in the rhizosphereIntermicrobial signalling affects on microbial metabolismOther forms of microbial interactionsConclusion and future trendsWhere to look for further informationReferencesArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as biostimulants for sustainable crop productionIntroductionFunctions and benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungiBidirectional nutrient exchangeSoil nutrient limitationSoil water limitationSoil qualitySymptoms of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations in favourable environmentsFactors impairing mycorrhizal effectivenessRequirements for successful implementation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in sustainable plant productionAgronomical aspectsInoculum-related aspectsThe current market for mycorrhizal productsConclusionWhere to look for further informationReferencesInnovation and practical applicationsDesigning and formulating microbial and non-microbial biostimulantsIntroductionThe biostimulant development processGeneration of product ideas and preliminary assessmentsProcess developmentScreening products for biostimulent activity and understanding their mode of actionQuality control and safetyField trialsRegulation and market positioningIndustrialization and commercializationIndustrial case study 1: mycorrhizal inoculantsIndustrial case study 2: vegetal-based protein hydrolysatesFuture trendsReferencesPlant biostimulants and their influence on nutrient use efficiency (NUE)IntroductionHumic and fulvic substancesModes of action relevant to nutrient use efficiencyInfluence of humic substances on plant growthPlant nutrient uptake, nutrient solubility and utilizationConclusionMicrobial biostimulantsArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)Azotobacter and AzospirillumModes of action relevant to nutrient use efficiencyArbuscular mycorrhizal fungiAzotobacter and AzospirillumConclusionSeaweeds and algaeModes of action relevant to nutrient use efficiencyRoot growthNutrient transportNutrient assimilation and storageConclusionProtein hydrolysatesModes of action relevant to nutrient use efficiencyDirect effects of nutrient form in soilsRoot growth/morphologyNutrient transporter and assimilationConclusionConclusion and future trendsReferencesCombining plant biostimulants and precision agricultureIntroductionMonitoring spatial variability in soil and plantsSite-specific management based on uniform management zonesSite-specific application of farming inputsPrecision application techniques for biostimulantsCase study: biostimulants in precision viticultureConclusion and future trendsWhere to look for further informationReferences
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