BlockChain VERSUS Relational Database

Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS)

RDBMS has tables, columns, and records. All these lines, RDBMS have characterized the relations of tables. Fundamentally, the arrangement of data is sorted out vigorously and used to locate correct information at the right time [33]. In any case, the tables will impart and take care of data when you need it. As a general rule, RDBMS utilizes Structured Query Language (SQL) to provide straightforward programmable code to operate the DB communication.

Merits of RDBMS

  • • Data Consistency
  • • Atomicity and Commitment
  • • Simplicity
  • • Ease of Data Retrieval
  • • Flexibility
  • • Concurrency and Database Locking

Blockchain Technology versus Relational Database

The various features with differences in Blockchain technology and relational databases are presented in Table 14.1.

Blockchain Consensus Models

The consensus model is to make the organization of the blocks in the blockchain both computationally as well as economically. The thought is to make it progressively beneficial to secure and bolster the system rather than to assault it. Blockchains are

TABLE 14.1

Difference between Blockchain Technology and Relational Database








Server with Clients

Power-to-Power Systems


Very slow

Better speed


High Costing


Data Handling

Writing and Reading

Develop, Destroy, Modify

Data Integrity





Not Supported



Not Available

Structure of a Blockchain

FIGURE 14.1 Structure of a Blockchain

scattered structures that share an ordinary state - the system needs to agree on the substance of the disseminated record. In this way, an agreeing prototype is needed in each Blockchain [34]. It guarantees that the following block in the structure is the unmatched adjustment of the real world. Using an agreement component allows the Blockchain to keep up a strategic distance from a focal position that monitors all accounts (Figure 14.1).

Key Features of the Consensus Model

  • • Consistency
  • • A liveness
  • • Fault Tolerance
  • • Proof of Capacity/Space
  • • Proof of Importance
  • • Proof of Stake
  • • Proof of Work

Distributed Ledger/Shared Ledger

This mechanization is known as a distributed ledger or a shared ledger or distributed ledger technology or DLT. They are an agreement or consensus of recreated, bilateral, and colliding digital information geologically transfused multiples, nations, organizations. DLT is a digital framework for storing the exchange of advantages where the exchanges and their nuances are stored in numerous spots simultaneously. In contrast to customary databases, a circulated record has no central information store or association functionalities.

Benefits of Distributed ledger

A great part of the early energy for appropriated record advancement has been around its application in money related exchanges. That is legitimate, considering the drastic expansion of the digital cash bitcoin and its exhaustive usage proves, at the same time demonstrating that DLT can, undoubtedly, work. Banks and other fund-related establishments ended up being early pioneers in this space, as well.

Be that as it may, DLT safeguards indicate digital ledgers are used in different locales, as well as government offices and corporate offices, despite money related exchanges. Experts acknowledge digital ledgers are used in control grouping, legal rights, social focal points appointment, and on occasion, throwing voting form procedures. They in like manner indicate DLT is used to running definitive chronicles and other similar exchanges.

Some accept that people can utilize this innovation to hold and better control individual data, and afterwards specifically share bits of those records when required; use cases here incorporate individual clinical records and corporate supply chains.

Some acknowledge that individuals can use this development to keep and manage singular information, and a short time later explicitly provide the record at the time needed; it incorporates supply chains and consolidates patent medical data in the use cases.

Also, advocates state digital records can assist better with following protected innovation rights and proprietorship for workmanship, products, music, film; and that's only the tip of the iceberg.

The Future of Distributed Ledger Technology

Regardless of whether distributed ledger technologies, for example, Blockchain, will reform how governments, establishments and ventures work is an open inquiry. Articles in the scholarly and monetary press have addressed whether distributed ledger technologies as they exist currently are adequately solid to place into wide- scale use. Issues incorporate the scarcity of guidelines for this new type of trade and security concerns.

Immutable Data

Unchanging nature can be described as the limit of a Blockchain record to remain unaltered, for a Blockchain to remain unaltered and perpetual. So, the data of Blockchain cannot be changed.

As showm in Figure 14.2, each data is stored in the blocks and each block is connected to the other block. That hash esteem contains an alphanumeric data created

Immutable structure of Blockchain

FIGURE 14.2 Immutable structure of Blockchain

by each block autonomously. Every block does not simply have a hash or digital signature for itself yet it holds the credentials of the past blocks as well. These ensure blocks are subsequently with one another and persistent [35]. This versatility of Blockchain technology ensures that the morsel can interfere in the structure or adjust the data saved to the block.

It is also basic to understand that Blockchains are scattered and circulated, where an agreement is made among the various centers that store the impersonation of information. This consensus ensures that the originality of information needs to keep up. Without a doubt, immutability is a complete component of this innovation. This idea can rethink the general data evaluating procedure and makes it increasingly productive, savvy, and carries more trust and integrity to the information.

Upcoming Industry Revolutions

Industry 4.0 Equipped with Blockchain

Industry 4.0 is an idea contrived for improving how current manufacturing plants work using the absolute most recent advances, similar to the ones utilized for making applications of Big Data, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), and Robotics [36]. Industry 4.0 speaks to the subsequent stage on the development of conventional industrial facilities towards genuine smart plants, which are intended to be progressively effective as far as an asset and to be particularly versatile ever-changing demands.

An establishment of Industry 4.0 comprises several information exchanges. The information stored in the chain are assorted and there is no connection among them. Such information needs to be actively fetched and stored quickly so as to ensure the productivity in the manufacturing plant. Information assortment can be brought out through frameworks that ought to take into consideration receiving, storing, handling, and trading data with gadgets that are sent through services or providers or possessed by customers. With the target of giving such a degree of network, the Industry 4.0 worldview proposes a model by utilizing important troublesome advancements that empower independent interchanges among various gadgets circulated through the Internet. Instances of aforesaid empowering advancements are Cloud Computing, Big Data, НОТ, Robot & UAV, cybersecurity [33], and simulation software, which are incorporated with other pertinent Industry 4.0 advances in Figure 14.3.

Industry 4.0 technologies

FIGURE 14.3 Industry 4.0 technologies

Figure 14.2 shows Industry 4.0 worldview that encourages the utilization of such advancements in technology to improve the empower the development of the manufacturing plant by the interchanges engineering in administration of Internet or cloud-focused designs that, structures of substances are engaged with the mechanical procedures trade data organized in Peer-to-Peer (P2P).

BlockChains for Industrial Applications

The following various Blockchains are available for different utilization:

Public Blockchains

It allows us to join anyone without endorsement. They will publish and approve the exchanges of data. Miners frequently get an award for their approval work. Ethereum and Bitcoin are used here. It will help in certain mechanical situations where a huge degree of straightforwardness is indispensable or where colossal buyer device participation is required.

Private Blockchains

The proprietor controls the participation here. The proprietor handles the extract prizes or allows the participant to the system. Ripple is designed for this kind of

Blockchain. It is basic to observe that, due to the nearness of a singular Blockchain controller, it is not distributed, instead, working logically as close-by protected scattered DB, which may be charming of mechanical circumstances the Blockchain individuals are prominent or perform the audits.

Consortium or Federated Blockchains

A team of proprietors takes care of this. The team controls all activities of the members. The logic of consensus is used for the pre-chosen hubs, which expands exchange security and fast exchange endorsement. This scenario is needed in all companies and takes a shot at a similar field and that need to exchange and approve exchanges. Every substance may have its approval hub and when a base measure of hubs supports exchange, it is updated in Blockchain. For example, Hyperledger- Fabric, maintained by various elements. It is mainly used in financial organizations, the power industry, and the companies issuing insurance policies.

Applications of BlockChain for Industry 4.0

Nowadays, Blockchain is assumed to be an essential component in the advancements of Industry 4.0 for addressing several challenging tasks, additionally test run on the implementation of the Blockchain have already began. One component of innovation can be improved by utilizing Blockchain, yet a similar element might be as yet a test for another. For instance, the execution of a Blockchain may help distribute computing answers for offering overabundance to their capacity needs, while, simultaneously, such a local Blockchain execution is at present exceptionally hard to repeat in IIoT hubs for the limitations of computing power and capacity of storage. Industry 4.0, Blockchain applications are listed below.

  • • Industrial Internet of Things Technologies (IIOT)
  • • Vertical/Horizontal Integration Systems
  • • Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS) / ICPS
  • • Analytics with Big Data
  • • Reinforced Reality
  • • Self-driving Robots
  • • Cloud and Edge Computing
  • • Additive Manufacturing (3d Printing)
  • • Cybersecurity
  • • Simulation Software


In this chapter, we explored the different angles of Industry 4.0 with the integration of Blockchain and its related technologies. We have discussed various aspects of Blockchain technologies and their types such as public, private, and hybrid models. Also, we have discussed the consensus mechanism that can be involved or utilized by the Blockchain as per the use cases of the end-user. Similarly, we have also listed the places in Industry 4.0 where Blockchain can be involved and where it will be beneficial. Through our research, we found that integrating Blockchain with Industry 4.0 not only adds security to the data, it also protects the data from future tempering and other invader attacks on manipulation. Thus, as an inference from our survey, we believe Industry 4.0 not only brings automation, it also brings us sophistication and the data protection through the Blockchain layer. The future work of this chapter has been planned to analyze the Blockchain layer concerning various deployment/ implementation perspectives.


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