Emerging Chemical Risks in the Work Environment

IntroductionReferencesIntroductionCharacteristics of NanomaterialsTerminology, Definitions, and Types of NanomaterialsCharacteristic Properties of NanomaterialsTypes of Nanomaterials and Their Main ApplicationsCarbon-Based NanomaterialsMetals and Metal AlloysInorganic Non-metallic NanomaterialsNanoclaysNanopolymers and DendrimersQuantum DotsNanocompositesImpact of Nanomaterials on Human HealthEffects of Specific Properties of Nanomaterials on ToxicityParticle SizeSpecific Surface AreaShapeDissolutionSurface Chemistry (Surface Charge)Mechanisms of ENMs ToxicityAbsorption and Translocation of Nanomaterials in the Human BodyInhalation ExposureDermal ExposureOral ExposurePotential Toxic Effects of Nanomaterials in HumansEffects on the Respiratory SystemEffects on the Cardiovascular SystemSpecific Target Organ Toxicity after Repeated ExposureNeurotoxic EffectsDevelopmental ToxicityEffects on the Endocrine SystemEffects on the Immune SystemInfluence on the Human MicrobiomeGenotoxic EffectsCarcinogenic EffectsEpidemiological StudiesStrategies for the Grouping of Nanomaterials Appropriate to Toxic EffectsCriteria for Grouping Nanomaterials for Hazard and Risk AssessmentGrouping Strategies and the Work EnvironmentOccupational Exposure Assessment Criteria for NanomaterialsNanomaterials in the Context of Standards and LegislationStandards and Legislation Regarding Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies in the WorldStandards and Legislation Regarding Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies in the United StatesStandards and Legislation Regarding Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies in EuropeOccupational Exposure to NanomaterialsTask-Based MeasurementsMeasurement Methods and Analytical Techniques Used for Occupational Exposure AssessmentOffline MeasurementsOnline MeasurementsMeasurement StrategiesTiered Approach and RecommendationsMeasurements of Background NanoparticlesContextual InformationStatistical Analysis of Exposure Measurement ResultsExample of Measurement Results in the Work EnvironmentCovering Plates with Spray Containing Nano TiO2Emission of Graphite Nanoparticles and Ultrafine Metal ParticlesSummaryReferencesReprotoxic and Endocrine SubstancesCharacterization of Reprotoxic and Endocrine SubstancesThe Influence of Xenobiotics on Male Fertility Disorders and Female Reproductive FunctionsEmbryotoxic and Teratogenic EffectsInfluence on Postnatal Developmental DisordersHormonal Balance DisordersLegal Aspects of Substances Toxic to Reproduction and Endocrine DisruptorsSubstances Included in Annex XIV to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006Substances Included in the SVHC Candidate ListSubstances Classified in Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the CouncilOther Legal AspectsOccupational Exposure Limit ValuesOccupational Exposure to Reprotoxic Substances and Endocrine DisruptorsRisks Resulting from Exposure to Reprotoxic Substances in the Work EnvironmentMetalsOrganic SolventsPesticidesPolichlorinated Biphenyls, Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, and Polychlorinated DibenzofuransPharmaceuticalsOthersHealth Effects of Exposure to Endocrine DisruptorsChemical Hazards Causing Adrenal DysfunctionChemical Hazards Causing Thyroid DysfunctionChemical Hazards Causing Pancreatic DysfunctionCombined Effects of Endocrine DisruptorsSummaryReferencesCarcinogenic and Mutagenic SubstancesIntroductionCharacteristics of the Carcinogenic/Mutagenic SubstancesMechanisms of Carcinogenicity/MutagenicityClassification of Carcinogenic/Mutagenic SubstancesExposure to Carcinogen/Mutagenic Substances at WorkConcepts of Occupational Exposure Limit Values Established for Carcinogenic/Mutagenic SubstancesCarcinogen/Mutagen MixturesKnown Substances – A New RiskSummaryReferencesAssessment of Chemical Risk in the Work EnvironmentIntroductionChemical Risk Assessment in the Light of Standards and RegulationsMeasurement Methods for Risk AssessmentInhalation ExposureChemical Risk Assessment CriteriaThe Principle of Quantitative Chemical Risk AssessmentInhalation Exposure—NanoparticlesDermal ExposureMeasurementless Methods for Risk AssessmentControl Banding MethodsModels for Qualitative and Quantitative Chemical Risk AssessmentAlgorithm for Quantitative Risk Assessment of Carcinogenic, Mutagenic, Reprotoxic and Endocrine SubstancesEvaluation of Models for Occupational Exposure and Risk AssessmentModels for Occupational Risk Assessment of NanomaterialsCB Nanotool-2Precautionary MatrixANSES—CBStoffenmenager Nano-toolThe EC-nanotoolEvaluation of Measurementless Models for Assessing the Occupational Risk Posed by NanomaterialsChemical Risk Assessment in the Workplaces—Examples of Good PracticesReportoxic SusbtancesOccupational Risk Assessment of Exposure to Sodium Warfarin during the Production of an Anticoagulant DrugChromatographic Determination ConditionsAir SamplingMeasurements at the Pharmaceutical Plant during the Production of the Anticoagulant DrugResult of Occupational Risk AssessmentControl risksEngineering NanomaterialsOccupational Risk Assessment of Exposure to Zirconium Oxide Nanopowder Calcia Stabilized, ZrO2+8%CaOMeasuring EquipmentOnline Measurements and Sampling at the Work StationResults of the Test and NOAA Exposure Evaluation for Occupational Risk AssessmentConfirmation of the Presence of NOAA Particles in the Air from the Evaluated ProcessMass Exposure IndicatorRisk Assessment—CB Method Stage 1—Determination of the Exposure LevelConclusionSummaryReferencesControl of Occupational RisksSubstitutionCollective Protection EquipmentTotal HousingPartial HousingLocal VentilationAir Cleaning DevicesGeneral VentilationAir FiltrationOrganizational MeasuresPersonal Protection EquipmentStorage, Transport and DisposalConclusionReferences
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