Pillars of TPM

For the improvement of OEE, it needs the long-term commitment of employees in TPM. For this, it is required to train them for routine maintenance tasks. The ‘TPM concept is built and stands on eight pillars’ (Sangameshwran and Jagannathan, 2002) that are known as the basic practices of TPM implementation. The TPM model’s eight pillars are shown in Figure 9.3.

History of TPM Pillars

TPM activities are indicated and organised by ‘pillars.’ The number and name of the TPM pillars may differ slightly according to different authors. However, the most commonly used model is Nakajima’s eight pillars (Nakajima, 1988), as shown in Figure 9.4. This Nakajima model has been simplified by some of the Western TPM experts.

Figure 9.5 shows a five-pillar model given by Yeomans and Millington in 1997. The researchers Yeomans and Millington eliminated three pillars, namely quality

The eight pillars of TPM (Source

FIGURE 9.4 The eight pillars of TPM (Source: Nakajima Model).

The pillars of TPM (Source

FIGURE 9.5 The pillars of TPM (Source: Yeomans and Millington Model).

maintenance, administrative TPM, and safety and environment, in a simplified Nakajima model in 1997.

Other Western practitioners called Steinbacher and Steinbacher also simplified the pillar model in 1993, as shown in Figure 9.6. This model is known as the Steinbacher and Steinbacher TPM model 1993.

The Society of Manufacturing Engineers in 1995 developed a new model for SMEs, which also includes five pillars as shown in Figure 9.7. This model is called the SME model.

Figure 9.8 illustrates the traditional TPM model which was developed in the 1960s. It also consists of eight activities or pillars, with the strong foundation of 5S.

TPM identifies the six big losses - set-up (initial) and breakdown time, speed losses, idle losses, start-up, and in-process losses. Machine operators of the

The pillars of TPM (Source

FIGURE 9.6 The pillars of TPM (Source: Steinbacher and Steinbacher Model).

The pillars of TPM (Source

FIGURE 9.8 The pillars of TPM (Source: Traditional Model).

manufacturing cell must be involved in maintenance work and rectify the error as soon as possible to remove the losses or waste. The most important obstacles or barriers in implementing TMP are lack of top management interest, no support from the workers’ union, a tight budget, organisational change, etc.

Salient Features of TPM

  • • TPM is a maintenance process.
  • • It is an advanced step of TQM.
  • • It is used to maintain the plant or equipment in good condition.
  • • The preventive as well as predictive maintenance step is needed for TPM.
  • • It can minimise failure of the equipment.
  • • The maintenance team and the production team have to work together for results.

Steps of TPM Implementation

The 12 Steps of TPM Implementation are categorised in Table 9.1.

Pillars of TPM

Pillar-1: Jishu Hozen

The first pillar is geared towards developing the ability of the operators to take care of small maintenance tasks by themselves, so that the experts of the maintenance


12 Steps of TPM Implementation



Main Points

Preparatory stage

1. Introduction to TPM by top management

Announcement of TPM meeting according to company bulletin.

2. Education and training on TPM

Training camp for officers in each level, and arrangement of slide screening for general employees

3. Create organisation to promote TPM

Committees, special working groups

4. Frame policies and goals of TPM

Benchmarks and goals, effectiveness forecasting

5. Develop the TPM master plan formation

Assessment preparation

Commencement of introduction State of implementation

6. Kick-off TPM

Customers, affiliated companies, and cooperative companies

7. Improvement of equipment effectiveness

Selection of model equipment and formation of team

8. Autonomous maintenance set-up creation

Step-wise method, assessment, and certificate

9. Create the planned maintenance set-up.

Predictive and periodic maintenance, management of spare parts, blueprints

10. Training of modified operation and maintenance skills

Collective education of leaders, communicating this to members

11. Create the initial set-up for management of equipment

Maintenance, prevention design, initial management, and LCC

Stages of firm establishment

12. Implementation of higher level TPM

For PM Awards do screening, challenging a higher goal

department are free to spend time on more value-added activity and special technical repairs. This pillar is called autonomous maintenance. The machine operators are responsible for maintenance of their machine/equipment to prevent failures.


  • 1. Smooth process.
  • 2. Operator’s flexibility.
  • 3. Effective employee participation to remove defects.
  • 4. Focus on small group activities.

Steps in autonomous maintenance:

  • 1. Employee preparation.
  • 2. Clean-up of machines initially.
  • 3. Take countermeasures.
  • 4. Standard fixing of AM.
  • 5. Inspection generally.
  • 6. Standardisation.

Pillar 2 – Continuous Improvement (Kaizen)

The second pillar is continuous improvement which is aimed at improving products, processes, and services by reducing waste in the workplace that affects efficiencies. It is known as ‘kaizen.’ Kaizen is a Japanese word for improvement. “Kai” means change, and “zen” means good (for the better), so kaizen means change for the better. These activities are not only for the production field, but can also be implemented at the administrative level in a firm. Kaizen refers to all activities that continuously make small improvements involving all people (from CEO to workers) in the organisation. Kaizen, unlike big innovations, requires little investment. Basically, large numbers of small improvements are more effective than a few large one.


  • 1. Zero losses concept.
  • 2. To ensure cost reduction of resources.
  • 3. To enhance machine effectiveness.
  • 4. To eliminate losses with the help of the PM tool.
  • 5. Ease of handling on machine by operators.

Tools used in kaizen:

  • 1. Cause-and-effect diagram.
  • 2. Gantt diagram.
  • 3. Pareto chart.
  • 4. Six Sigma.

Pillar 3 – Planned Maintenance

The third pillar is planned maintenance which focused on having failure-free equipment which produces error-free products for getting customer satisfaction. This is further divided into four sub-maintenance areas; these are:

  • 1. Preventive maintenance.
  • 2. Breakdown maintenance.
  • 3. Corrective maintenance.
  • 4. Maintenance prevention.

With the help of planned maintenance, we found a reactive to proactive method and use trained staff to help other staff to be trained for better maintenance of their machines.


  • 1. Sustain availability of machines.
  • 2. Optimum cost of maintenance.
  • 3. Reduce spares inventory.
  • 4. Improve reliability of machines.

Six steps in planned maintenance:

  • 1. Equipment evaluation.
  • 2. Improve weakness by restoring deterioration.
  • 3. System building for information management.
  • 4. Set time-based information system.
  • 5. Prepare a predictive maintenance system.
  • 6. Evaluate the planned maintenance.

Pillar 4 – Quality Maintenance

Quality maintenance is the fourth pillar of TPM, aimed at assuring zero-defect manufacturing to ensure customer receives the best quality product. The main focus is on taking corrective actions in a systematic manner. The key factor of QM is to prevent errors from occurring in the product in the first place, rather than fixing produced ones.

QM is implemented into two phases. In the first phase, the quality issues are eliminated by analysing the defects, to prevent accruing the defects, then these improvements are implemented. The second phase is to ensure sustaining the quality through standard parameters and methods to achieve zero defects. The major benefits of QM are reductions in the cost of quality, re-work, consumers’ complaints, and need for inspections.


  • 1. Control of equipment for defect-free conditions.
  • 2. QM activities for quality assurance.
  • 3. Defect prevention at source.
  • 4. Detection of defects during production.
  • 5. Segregation of defects within the production line.
  • 6. Implementation of quality assurance to ensure operator effectiveness.

Steps related to product:

  • 1. Product defects.
  • 2. Check severity of the defect - whether it is major or minor.
  • 3. Locate the defect with reference to the layout.
  • 4. Check the magnitude and frequency of defect occurrence.

Pillar 5 – Education and Training

Education and training is the fifth pillar and is aimed at educating the workers to have multi-skilled staff whose morale is high, who work with eagerness, and who do all necessary functions independently with efficiency. The operators are educated to upgrade their skills. The operators gain an idea about ‘know-how’ from their experience and solve the problem without knowing the root cause of it. So, it is necessary to train them witli ‘know-why.’ The staff should be trained with the aim of creating a firm with lots of experts. There are various phases of skills, like do not know; know theoretically, but not practically; can do, but cannot train others; and can do as well as also teach others.


  • 1. Techniques to improve knowledge and skills.
  • 2. Training provides for self-learning.
  • 3. Revitalisation of employees through training/assessment, etc.
  • 4. Create a good work environment for reducing employee fatigue.

Steps involved in education and training activities:

  • 1. Firstly, check present status of education and training and set new' policies.
  • 2. For upskilling, establish a training system for maintenance.
  • 3. Prepare a calendar schedule for training.
  • 4. Start the training systems.

Pillar 6 – Safety, Health, and Environment

Safety, Health, and Environment (SHE) is the sixth pillar of TPM, which focuses on providing a safe workplace and a healthy environment for employees. This pillar aims to cultivate continuous improvements to achieve a sustained and excellent record of safety, health, and environment. A committee is constituted involving all level staff/officers/w'orkers and is headed by a technically senior person. Safety is the top-most factor in the plant. For this, there should be a need to create awareness among employees through various steps, e.g., quizzes, dramas, slogans, and posters, etc. on safety can be organised by the firm from time to time.

Pillar 7 – Office TPM

This pillar concentrates on all administrative activities and support functions in the organisation. It starts working after the first four pillars of TPM come on track. The main aim of this pillar is to identify and eliminate waste and losses, to improve efficiency in the administration work. To improve automation in the office, it includes a detailed analysis of the processes and procedures of w'ork used in it.

Office TPM and its benefits:

  • 1. Better w'ork area utilisation.
  • 2. Reduced repetitive w'ork.
  • 3. Reduced inventory levels.
  • 4. Reduced cost of administration.
  • 5. Reduced inventory carrying cost.
  • 6. Reduce paperwork.
  • 7. Reduction of overhead costs.
  • 8. Reduction in breakdown.
  • 9. Clean and attractive workplace.

Pillar 8 – Early Equipment Management

The last pillar of TPM is early equipment management. It uses the experience collected from previous maintenance activities to make sure that new machinery reaches its maximum performance. The output of a machine is guaranteed from the first day when machine starts. By taking input from the people who work on that machine on a daily basis and from suppliers, you can improve the maintainability and operability of the machine.

Steps involved in early equipment management:

  • 1. Easy cleaning and inspection.
  • 2. Lubrication.
  • 3. Accessibility.
  • 4. Improving operability through ergonomics.
  • 5. Feedback mechanisms.
  • 6. Increased safety features.
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