# Applied Systems Analysis: Science and Art of Solving Real-Life Problems

The Problem and Methods of Its SolutionProblem-Solving OptionsWays to Influence the SubjectIntervention in RealityThree Types of IdeologiesIs Improving Intervention Feasible?Four Types of Improving InterventionsMore about Applied Systems AnalysisQuestions and TasksThe Concept of the SystemStatic Properties of the SystemDynamic Properties of the SystemSynthetic Properties of the SystemConclusion (systems picture of the world)Questions and TasksModels and ModelingModeling Is an Integral Part of Any ActivityAnalysis and Synthesis as Model Building MethodsWhat Is a Model?Analytical Approach to the Concept of a ModelClassification is the Simplest Abstract Model of the Diversity of RealityArtificial and Natural ClassificationsReal ModelsSynthetic Approach to the Concept of a ModelThe Concept of AdequacyThe Coherence of the Model with the CultureHierarchy of ModelsQuestions and TasksControlAnalytical Approach: Five Components of ControlStage of Finding the Desired Control ActionSynthetic Approach to Control: Seven Types of ControlSummaryQuestions and TasksReferencesII. Systems Practice: Technology of Applied Systems AnalysisTechnology of Applied Systems AnalysisOperations of Systems AnalysisAbout Various Options for Solving ProblemsStage One. Fixation of the Problem and Problem SituationStage Two. Diagnosing ProblemsStage Three. Making a List of StakeholdersDifficulties in Compiling a List of StakeholdersTips to Facilitate the WorkStage Four. Revelation of the Problem MessTechnologies for Identifying the MessStructuring the MessParticipation of Stakeholders in the AnalysisStage Five. Definition of ConfiguratorStage Six. Revelation of Stakeholders’ PurposesDanger of Substitution of TargetsThe Danger of Mixing Goals and MeansThe Danger of Incomplete Enumeration of GoalsThe Danger of Not Being Able to Express a GoalPeculiarities of Identifying the Goals of the OrganizationTechniques of Work with GoalsStage Seven. Definition of CriteriaStage Eight. Experimental Study of SystemsStage Nine. Building and Improving ModelsStage Ten. Generating AlternativesStage Eleven. Choice or Decision-MakingStage Twelve. Implementation of Improving InterventionReferencesIII. Brief Review of Results of Systemology in the 20th CenturyThe Current Stage of Development of Systems Thinking The Transition from the Ideology of the Machine Age to the Ideology of the Systems AgeInitial Ideas about the Structure of the UniverseThe Peculiarity of the Human System: The Culture of the Subject as “Second Nature”The Development of the Model of the Universe: A Paradigm ShiftQuestions and TasksElements of Systems StaticsIntegrity (Combined with Openness, Functionality, Expediency, and Emergence)Openness (Combined with Feasibility and Functionality)Distinctiveness of Parts (in Combination with Functionality and Purposefulness)Structuredness (in Combination with the Internal Heterogeneity of the System, its openness, Functionality, Emergence, and Purposefulness)Questions and TasksElements of Systems DynamicsFunctionality (in Conjunction with structuring, Purposefulness, and Stimulating)Stimulation (in combination with internal heterogeneity, structuring, functionality, and purposefulness)System Variability Over Time (in combination with internal heterogeneity, structuring, functioning, and development of the system)Factors Determining the Behavior of SystemsFlows and Stocks of ResourcesQualitative Models of Complex Systems Dynamics: Archetypes of BehaviorOn Mathematical Modeling of Dynamics of Complex Systems. SynergeticsOrder and Chaos in NatureAttractorsFractalsQuestions and TasksElements of Complexity TheoryFormation of the Concept of Complexity. Range of DifficultiesClassification of the Complexity TypesClassification According to the Degree of Objective Complexity in the Behavior of the Controlled ObjectComplexity Classification of Types of Models of the Managed SystemThe Complexity Caused by the Large Dimension of the Composition ModelThe Complexity Caused by the Inadequacy of the Structure ModelThe Complexity Caused by Incomplete Information in the Combined Operating Model of the Managed SystemThe Complexity Produced by Probabilistic UncertaintyThe Complexity Associated with “Vague” UncertaintyQuestions and TasksConclusionReferences