Multiple Objective Analytics for Criminal Justice Systems

Criminal Justice Systems in the United StatesIntroductionCrime: Definition, Classification, and CostsReasons for CrimeCriminal Justice Systems: Definition, Laws, Resources, and ProcessesData Relating to Criminal Justice in the United StatesData and Models for Decision MakingThe United Crime Reporting Program, the Summary Reporting System, and Crime RatesData on the Solving of CrimesThe National Incidence-Based Reporting System, the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted Program, and the Hate Crime Statistics ProgramData Comparing Criminal Justice in the United States to Other CountriesIssues Associated with Criminal Justice Systems in the United StatesSummary and a Look ForwardAnalytics and Criminal Justice SystemsIntroductionDecisions Associated with Criminal Justice Systems and Why They Are Difficult to MakeDecisions in GeneralDecision Makers and Stakeholders for Criminal Justice SystemsDecisions for Criminal Justice SystemsAnalytics and Operations ResearchComplexities Which Make Decisions Difficult for Criminal Justice SystemsAnalytic Methodologies for Dealing with Criminal Justice SystemsProblem Structuring MethodsAn Illustrative Example of Problem Structuring for Juvenile CrimeGenerating Multiple Objectives and Multiple Performance Measures for a Decision SituationAn Illustrative Example: Determining Objectives and Performance Measures for Setting Up a Syringe Exchange ProgramCost–Benefit AnalysisMultiattribute Value Functions and Multiattribute Utility FunctionsAn Illustrative Example: Using a Multiattribute Utility Function for the Decision of Whether to Use a Court-Appointed AttorneySimulation Modeling and AnalysisA Review of Selected Applications of Analytics to Criminal Justice SystemsUsing Multiple Objective Analytics to Address Issues Associated with Criminal Justice SystemsIntroductionPrivatization of PrisonsData on Prisons and the Motivation for PrivatizationAdvantages and Disadvantages of PrivatizationDemocrats vs. Republicans with Respect to PrivatizationThe Literature on Private vs. Public PrisonsAn Illustrative Example: Development of a Multiattribute Value Function to Compare PrisonsDetermination of Objectives and AttributesAssessment of the MAV FunctionRanking Proposals from Private CompaniesBail ReformThe Bail ProcessDifficulties Associated with the Current Bail ProcessTrends in Bail ReformAdvantages and Disadvantages of Keeping a Defendant Incarcerated Prior to TrialCurrent Approaches and Suggestions for the Bail ProcessA Multiple Objective, Decision Theoretic Model for Selection of Pretrial ConditionsStakeholdersAlternatives and Process DescriptionInput Parameters, Probabilities, and Control Variables for the ModelAttributes for the Multiattribute Utility FunctionCriterion, Alternatives, Parameters, and Multiattribute Utility Function for the ExampleThe Simulation Model and ResultsFinal Discussion of the ModelUsing Multiple Objective Analytics to Improve Federal LawsIntroductionThe Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994Impetus for the LawElements of the LawImplementation ResultsDetractors and SupportersMotivation of CriminalsThe Law’s Effect on CrimeA Cost–Benefit Analysis of the COPS ProgramThe Law and Incarceration RatesCriminal Justice Reform Act of 2018 (The First Step Act)Impetus for the LawProvisions of the LawCriticisms of the LawThe Prisoner Assessment Tool Targeting Estimated Risks and Needs (PATTERN)An Illustrative Example: Optimizing Over Controls for the First Step Act
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