HISTORY OF MEDICINE

1.2.1 EGYPTIAN MEDICINE

The rise of Egyptian civilization was in about 3000 BC. Seklret-Eanach was the first doctor known to history. The second doctor was Imhotep (2,600 BC) He seems to have been a successful physician. He started using simple surgery instead of magic [8]. The oldest known medical book is the Ebers

Papyrus, written about 1500 BC, covering 200 illnesses, extracting medicine from crops, and pointing out the Egyptian physicians used a wide range of herbal and mineral drugs medicated steam inhalation had used for the treatment of patients with chest problem, and doctors used ointments for healing wounds [9]. According to the Egyptians concept, the human body was frill of passages. They considered that it could cause disease if these passages in a human body were blocked, to open the passages; they used laxatives and caused vomiting. However, they believed that spells and magic would help to cure the sickness and they used amulets to prevent the disease. They were, curious about the fundamental and primary sources of illness and they started to search for a physical cause of disease [10]. The Egyptians had some awareness of anatomy from the experience of making mummies. Egyptian surgeiy was restricted only to the treatment of injuries, fractures, and the treatment of blisters and cysts or abscesses. They had surgical instruments such as probes, saws, forceps, scalpels, and scissors clamps, sutures, and cauterization [11].

1.2.2 CHINESE MEDICINE

Chinese medical history starts around the second century B.C, older medical methods and techniques are not clearly documented. The first consistent medical treatise is the “Yellом-Emperor’s Inner Canon.” The HAN Dynasty considered the most glorious period in Chinese medical history [12]. Chinese medication was based on the Yin and Yang concept [13]. More specifically, Chinese Physicians use the concepts of Yin and Yang to describe the naturally occurring opposing and interdependent physical conditions that exist in a balanced state in the body. Yin is related with tissue of the organ and is feminine, soft, cold, moist, receptive, dark, and associated with water, while yang is associated with function of the organ is masculine, dry, hot, and bright also allied with fire. With a yin deficiency, organs are lacking in nutrition, while a yang deficiency results an insufficient performance of an organ or organ system. Yin and yang are equally distributed onto a healthy body, and disease was considered an imbalanced condition of the Yin-Yang dialectical components. This imbalance of the body is due to the absence of vital energy stream (Qi) that circulates through channels [meridians] in the body [14]. Huangdi Neijing, describes the shape and size of the major internal organs it clearly indicates that the ancient Chinese performed primitive dissection and anatomy had never developed beyond this, due to the rigorous ban against on the dissection of the human body [15]. During the period the knowledge of anatomy is very poor and limited hence the idea regarding the internal organs were considerably mistaken. Based on the ancient theory, all internal organs are classified into two major categories, the five firm [zang] organs and are considered to be yin in nature, the heart, spleen, lung, liver, and kidneys belong to this category. The second category considered as yang nature and these six hollow organs [fu] includes gall bladder, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, bladder, and triple burner. There is also another group of tissues and organs, functioning as the zang organs but in the form of fu organs-called extraordinary fu organs, including the marrow brain, the bones, the vessels, and the uterus [16].

The ancient Chinese diagnosis based on the pulse and the procedure of taking the pulse known as the pulse diagnosis [17]; it helps to recognize very subtle pulse variation. The categories of pulse classification used in traditional Chinese medicine have expanded to 51 different varieties of pulse which were to be taken from 11 different areas of the body. A strong, steady pulse would indicate to the practitioner that the person is healthy while the scattered pulses are the indication of the illness and the critical condition may be close death. Acupuncture is one of the important treatments in ancient china and is the practice of inserting needles into the superficial skin, subcutaneous tissue, and muscles at particular acupuncture points [18]. In traditional Chinese medicine, the human body has as many as 2,000 acupuncture points linked by 12 major meridians. These meridians cany energy, or “Qi,” between exterior parts of the body and its internal organs. Acupuncture is believed to maintain the balance between Yin and Yang, thus enabling the normal flow of “Qi” throughout the body and restoring physical and mental health [19]. Moxibustion is another traditional Chinese therapy which consists of burning dried moxa [mugwort root] made from dried Artimesia vulgaris on particular points on the body to facilitate healing. Moxibustion facilitated to warming and refreshing the blood, it enhances the stimulation of the flow of Qi. Moxibustion utilized to treat the diseases such as Arthritis, Back pain, Headaches, Migraines, Muscle stiffness, Menstrual cramps, Digestive problems, Ulcers, Cancer, Infertility, Tendonitis [20].

1.2.3 INDIAN MEDICINE

In India, the history of traditional medicines and its health-care record goes back to 5000 years BCE, when health-care needs and diseases were described in ancient manuscripts such as “Charaka Samhita” (990 BCE), “Sushruta Samhita” (660 BCE), and “Dhanwantari Nighantu” (1800 CE), where the use of plants and polyherbal formulations was emphasized and widely practiced. As per Indian belief a good health, requiring equilibrium between air, bile, and mucous component [21]. In Ayurveda Charaka Samhita is the oldest and the most authentic manuscript it was written by Charaka he was a well-known Ayurvedic physician in ancient India. This comprehensive text describes various primordial theories on the human body, etiology, symptomology, and of wide range medicines for a varieties of diseases and contains 120 chapters arranged in eight books. The Sarira-Sthaka is one of the significant books, and are mainly discusses the anatomy, embryology, and technique of dissection [22]. The Susruta Samhita was written by another prominent physician and surgeon Susruta. He was a proponent of human dissection his texts include a systematic method for the dissection of the human cadaver. The prohibition on human dissection was not existed in India, this facilitated the Indian physicians to acquire a good knowledge of human anatomy especially bones, muscles, blood vessels, and joints. Thus, India has established to a higher standard in surgery than any other ancient civilization [23].

1.2.4 ARAB MEDICINE

Islamic medicine was exceedingly developed during the post-classical era by incorporating the concept of other ancient medicine such as Greek, Roman, and Persian medicine and traditional Indian medicine-Ayurveda, while at the same time it helped to making numerous advances and innovations. Islamic medicine was later embraced in Western Europe’s medieval medicine together with knowledge of classical medicine after European physicians got to know Islamic medical authors during the 12th centuiy Renaissance.

Al-Razi was the first major Persian physician (865-925 C.E). He was the first person to distinguish measles from smallpox, and he found the chemical kerosene and number of other compounds including alcohol and Sulphuric acid [24]. He became the chief physician in Baghdad and Rayy hospitals. Al-Razi is known as the father of pediatrics and his book “The Diseases of Children” was considered as the first document to define pediatrics as a separate sector of medicine. He was an expert in ophthalmology also, he found allergic asthma. Al-Razi was the first doctor to study and write about immunology and allergy. According to available records, Al-Razi recognized fever as a mechanism of protection against disease and infection [25]. Abu ‘ Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina Bom around 980 in Afshana near Bukhara in Central Asia was another great doctor in the Islamic world. He was better known by the Latin name “Avicenna” in Europe.

He is renowned as a polymath, and as a philosopher as a doctor whose significant work was the “Canon of Medicine” [al-Qammfi ’l-Tibb] continued to teach in Europe and the Islamic world as a medical textbook until the early modern age. The Canon of Medicine” put standards in the Middle East and Europe; it formed the basis for the traditional type of Unani medicine in India [26].

1.2.5 GRECO-ROMAN MEDICINE

Hippocrates codified, systematized, and located Greek Medicine into its classical form. The fundamental principles of natural healing in Greek Medicine based on the medical philosophy of Hippocrates (460-360 BCE). He was one of the authors of the Hippocratic Corpus. According to the Hippocratic physiology, the body consists of four fluids or humors-Blood, Black bile, Yellow bile, Phlegm, and health was accomplished when all these four fluids were in equilibrium. Anatomical knowledge was not a much stronger point in Hippocratic medicine [27]. There was a religious restriction on dissecting cadavers in ancient Greece. The impact of classical Greek medicine was to understand physiology or how the living, respiratory human organism as a whole relates and reacts to its surroundings and how it works to guarantee its health, survival, and well-being [28]. This gave a holistic approach to Greek medicine. Hippocrates laid the theoretical foundation for Greek medicine, further developed, expanded, and introduced by other physicists and philosophers-Plato, Aristotle, and Galen. Galen mainly focused on anatomy and physiology. Both Galen and Dioscorides were pioneering innovators who made significant contributions to Greek Medicine’s theory and practice. Galen was the Roman Empire’s main physician, and Dioscorides was an herbalist and known as the Father of Pharmacy [29]. Galen’s anatomical observations were based on animal dissections and vivisections then he tried to interpret human anatomy. His first human anatomical observations were started when he worked as a gladiator surgeon; the wounds from fighting provided the basic awareness about the internal structure of the human body. His concepts were streamlined after Galen’s death and became the foundation of medicine until the Renaissance. His focus on the four humors [blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm] was particularly combined with the other fours, including the elements, qualities, seasons, and age groups [30].

1.2.6 THE MEDICAL RENAISSANCE

The renaissance is the period between the 14th and 17th centuries in European history at this period new involvement has arisen and prospered in the cultural and scientific area. In the early 1400s, the Medical Renaissance began and ended in the late 1600s. During this time, great physicians and humanists have made unique progress in medicine and surgeiy during this time [31]. In the early classic Renaissance period, Linacre, Erasmus, Leonicello, and Sylvius were considered as the first, contributors in the field of medicine. Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Pare were made exceptional anatomical contributions by the publication of the “Human Factory” in 1543 (Vesalius), and Ambroise Pare Published “The Apologie and Treatise” which describing inimitable surgical developments. The period of Medical Renaissance, included a great number of gifted physicians and surgeons who made exceptional contributions to human anatomy; Vesalius collected detailed anatomical information; Pare focused on advanced surgical techniques; and Harvey, revealed anatomy and physiology of the circulatory system [32].

Ambroise Pare (1510-1590) was most praised doctor during Renaissance. He was a French military barber surgeon who delivered many discoveries. He is considered the father of surgeiy and modern forensic pathology and an innovator in surgical techniques especially in battlefield medicine, and wound treatments [33]. Pare devised a clamp, it helped to control of bleeding vessels at the amputated sites. Pare becomes aware of improving his techniques and advancing the surgical treatments, with the improved result and eventually better survival. The expanded collection of Par’e also included the use of artificial limbs and artificial eyes to replace losses on the battlefield [34]. Techniques have also been developed for bladder stone operations. Par’e also invented some ingenious approaches for the suturing of wounds on the face. Pare was also an influential personality in the progress of obstetrics during the middle of the 16th century [35]. He revived the procedure of podalic version for the safe birth of the child by turning the fetus into a viable position at the womb [36].

Hieronymus Fabricius (1537-1619) was an anatomist and surgeon he was known as “The Father of Embryology” in medical science [37]. He prepared an atlas of human and animal anatomy known as Tabulae Pictae. This work involves illustrations from many distinct artists and these anatomical illustrations are credited to Fabricius. At the end of the Renaissance, William Harvey (1578-1657), a British medical doctor and cardiovascular researcher discovered the general circulation and published his findings in “The Motu Cordis” in 1628. This discovery replaced old theories regarding the blood circulation with evidence-based on experiments. The studies of Harvey on blood circulation are fundamental facts to understanding the role of the heart within the human body [38]. However, his work was not accepted. Despite the support of the Royal School of Physicians, several found it hard to accept his ideas they supported the theories behind bloodletting that was fundamental to the practice of the tune. Harvey was the most intellectual physician of the very late Renaissance and the beginning of the New Science.

 
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