RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

6.6.1 FOR ASIAN COUNTRIES

Three combinations of parameters are used for prediction using different algorithms for different Asian countries such that accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity are calculated. Sensitivity and specificity rates

Workflow of the consensus-based final prediction

FIGURE 6.3 Workflow of the consensus-based final prediction.

are needed to draw the ROC. Three combinations of parameters were used for prediction: Combination 1: age, gender, physical activity, family history, and WC; Combination 2: age, gender, physical activity, family history, WC, and BMI; and Combination 3: age, gender, physical activity, family history, and BMI. While developing the model with logistic regression, initially, Xand Y values are defined. X is the matrix that contains the attributes from the dataset and Y is the vector, based on which prediction can be done. X is defined as the corresponding p values of age, waist, physical activity, family history, and BMI. Y is the vector based on the outcome. Once the X and Y values are defined, split the X and Y values into corresponding training set and testing set. Here, sklearn splitting is done such that the random state value is set as zero. Once the classification of training set and testing set are over in the next stage, on the training set, we have to train a logistic regression model and fit the model on the X_train and T train. Once the model is fit, prediction based on the testing set, that is,X_test, should be carried out and calculate the accuracy such that in this dataset, the accuracy for the combinations 1-3 for the Asian countries is up to 0.8505, 0.9779, and 0.960, respectively. Once the model is built, now, the confusion matrix is created such that it will give the number of real and false prediction in the form of array. The confusion matrix for our dataset for combination 2 of Asian countries is shown in Figure 6.4, which indicates that the dimension is 2x2. For example, in the Indian system, real prediction values are 3153 and 122,587 (diagonal values) and inaccurate prediction values are 1846 and 1010. Similarly, the confusion matrix for different countries is calculated, which is fully used for the prediction.

Therefore, from the logistic regression model, the classification rate, precision, recall, sensitivity, and specificity are shown in Table 6.4 for combination 2. Similarly, values are identified for remaining combination. True negative rate is determined by the specificity, which defines the percentage of patients who are correctly identified as being healthy, so using a logistic regression model for combination 2, it is almost up to 63.07%, 70.94%, 69.38%, and 80.18%, respectively. True positive rate is determined by the sensitivity, which defines the percentage of patients who are correctly identified as being disease so using the logistic regression model for combination 2, it is almost up to 99.18%, 98.64%, 98.74%, and 98.54%, respectively, for the Asian countries. Therefore, similarly, these values are identified using four different algorithms for Asian countries, as shown in Tables 6.5-6.7.

Visualizing the confusion matrix

FIGURE 6.4 Visualizing the confusion matrix.

TABLE 6.4 Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity Percentage Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Logistic

Regression

Accuracy

(O/O)

Precision

(0/0)

Recall (o/o)

Sensitivity

(0/0)

Specificity

(0/0)

India

97.78

98.51

99.1

99.18

63.07

China

96.98

98.14

98.6

98.64

70.94

Sri Lanka

97.08

98.18

98.7

98.74

69.38

Oman

97.175

98.41

98.5

98.54

80.18

The optimum value (>95%) is considered as the high risk score for the diabetes that is detected based on the ROCs for India, China, Sri Lanka, and Oman, as shown in Figure 6.5.

TABLE 6.5 Combination 1 (Without Considering BMI)

Accuracy

Precision

Sensitivity

Specificity

India

Logistic Regression

85.05

87.40

91.39

71.17

Gaussian Bayes Model

78.4

78

79.0

77.0

Random Forest

71.1

69.5

71.9

69.3

Decision Tree

72.7

67

67.9

67.8

China

Logistic Regression

93.98

92.97

72.17

70.81

Gaussian Bayes Model

95.30

96

96.0

95.0

Random Forest

96

95

95.0

92.0

Decision Tree

89.2

85.5

70.2

65.8

Sri Lanka

Logistic Regression

94.37

94.28

74.19

61.53

Gaussian Bayes Model

94.50

89

94

92

Random Forest

94.0

88.2

94.8

91.7

Decision Tree

92.0

77.7

70.3

65.6

Oman

Logistic Regression

92.55

90.19

73.18

69.72

Gaussian Bayes Model

92.62

86.7

93.0

89.9

Random Forest

93.0

86

93.0

89.0

Decision Tree

92.0

79.0

79.0

66.1

The Indian system is cross-validated using AUC and its value is 0.9873. The China system is cross-validated using AUC and its value is 0.9870. The Sri Lanka system is cross-validated using AUC and its value is 0.9879. The Oman system is cross-validated using AUC and its value is 0.9883.

There might be unpredictable and unknown connections between the factors in the dataset. It is critical to find and evaluate how many factors in the dataset are dependent on one another. This information can enable to more readily set up the information to meet the desires for machine learning calculations. Factors inside a dataset can be connected for a number of reasons. Relation could be true, neutral, or zero depends on the movement of the two variables. Association can similarly be neural or zero, inferring that the variables are insignificant. Relation between different features for the Indian system is shown in Figure 6.6. The graph is plotted according to the pair using the correlation feature, as shown in Figure 6.7. A similar approach is applied to all the remaining T2D systems of Asian countries and then analyzed.

Accuracy

Precision

Sensitivity

Specificity

India

Logistic Regression

97.78

98.51

99.18

63.07

Gaussian Bayes Model

96.06

92.00

96.12

94.3

Random Forest

96.0

92.0

96.0

94.0

Decision Tree

93.7

98.1

74.8

72.9

China

Logistic Regression

96.98

98.14

98.64

70.94

Gaussian Bayes Model

94.7

89.23

94.80

91.0

Random Forest

94.0

89.0

94.0

91.0

Decision Tree

94.0

90.01

75.7

56.0

Sri Lanka

Logistic Regression

97.08

98.18

98.74

69.38

Gaussian Bayes Model

97.01

97.0

97.0

97.0

Random Forest

99.9

99.8

98.7

98

Decision Tree

96.7

97.7

66.2

64.0

Oman

Logistic Regression

97.175

98.141

98.54

80.18

Gaussian Bayes Model

95.90

96.28

96.0

95.0

Random Forest

96.0

96.0

96.0

95.0

Decision Tree

92.14

72.47

76.05

78.20

TABLE 6.7 Combination 3 (Without Considering WC)

Accuracy

Precision

Sensitivity

Specificity

India

Logistic Regression

96.0

95.8

96.2

94.5

Gaussian Bayes Model

96.24

96.0

96.0

94.0

Random Forest

99.0

99.0

99.2

98.0

Decision Tree

92.5

95.0

84.0

78.0

China

Logistic Regression

96.24

97.51

98.52

60.74

Gaussian Bayes Model

95.50

95.25

96.0

94.0

Random Forest

98.0

98.0

98.0

98.0

Decision Tree

96.0

96.0

96.0

94.0

Sri Lanka

Logistic Regression

96.52

97.78

98.46

64.07

Gaussian Bayes Model

95.47

92.5

91.0

89.5

Random Forest

98.0

97.8

96.4

92.2

Decision Tree

80.0

93.0

84.0

79.0

Oman

Logistic

Regression

85.8

91.5

85.8

81.0

Gaussian Bayes Model

94.48

94.0

94.0

93.0

Random Forest

98.0

98.0

98.0

98.0

Decision Tree

95.0

92.0

90.15

89.7

Optimum value using ROC

FIGURE 6.5 Optimum value using ROC.

Correlation between the features for the Indian system

FIGURE 6.6 Correlation between the features for the Indian system.

Pair plot according to correlation feature values

FIGURE 6.7 Pair plot according to correlation feature values.

Using the ROC curve, the cutoff value for the risk score can be identified. The ROC curves were plotted for the diabetes risk score, the sensitivity was plotted on the v-axis, and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) was plotted on the .v-axis. The more precise segregating the test, the more extreme the upward part of the ROC bend and the higher the zone under the bend (AUC). The optimum value is considered as the high risk score for the diabetes that is detected based on ROCs. ROC curves using different combinations for the Indian system are demonstrated in Figure 6.8. Therefore, it is observed that logistic regression performs better compared to all other algorithms. Since the AUC is constantly used to identify how well the test is performed between the two gatherings like if the value of AUC increases, which indicates, the better is the test. Therefore, the Indian system is validated using the AUC, and its value is 0.98. Similarly, China, Sri Lanka, and Oman systems are also validated, and the obtained results are 0.98, 0.97, and 0.94, respectively. A similar approach is applied for remaining countries.

ROC curves showing the performance of the diabetes risk score in predicting diabetes

FIGURE 6.8 ROC curves showing the performance of the diabetes risk score in predicting diabetes.

Similarly, about 514,384 samples are used for analysis. Optimization of diabetes data using /г-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifier, DT, RF, SVM, and GB model is compared as shown in Table 6.8.

TABLE 6.8 Analysis of Optimization of Different Machine Learning Algorithms

Machine

Learning

Algorithm

Accuracy— India

Accuracy— China

Accuracy— Sri Lanka

Accuracy— Oman

KNN

Classifier

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Decision Tree

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Random

Forest

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 0.94 Test set: 0.94

Training set: 0.93 Test set: 0.93

Support Vector Machine

Training set: 0.99 Test set: 0.99

Training set: 0.95 Test set: 0.95

Training set: 0.965 Test set: 0.965

Training set: 0.95 Test set: 0.95

Gaussian Bayes Model

Training set: 0.9611 Test set: 0.9608

Training set: 0.9404 Test set: 0.9414

Training set: 0.9443 Test set: 0.9450

Training set: 0.9261 Test set: 0.9262

By considering the simple five parameters, namely, age, family history of diabetes, WC, physical activity, and BMI, the system was developed. Quickly, the data for these factors were obtained by five inquiries and scores acquired for these elements, as shown in Table 6.9.

6.6.2 FOR EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

Similarly to explained in Section 6.4.1, here, three combinations of parameters are used for prediction using different algorithms for different European countries such that accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity are calculated. Sensitivity and specificity rates are needed to draw the ROC. The confusion matrix for the European dataset for combination 2 is shown in Figure 6.9.

Therefore, from the logistic regression model, the classification rate, precision, recall, sensitivity, and specificity are shown in Table 6.10 for combination 2. Similarly, the values are identified for remaining combinations. True negative rate is determined by the specificity; therefore, using the logistic regression model for combination 2, it is almost up to 55.70%, 82.55%, 56.62%, and 55.83%, respectively. True positive rate is determined by the sensitivity, which defines the percentage of patients who are correctly identified as being disease; therefore, using the logistic regression model for combination 2, it is almost up to 97.70%, 90.35%, 93.07%, and 91.98%, respectively, for European countries. Therefore, similarly, these values are identified using four different algorithms for European countries, as shown in Tables 6.11-6.13.

TABLE 6.9 Diabetes Risk Score for Asian Countries

Parameters

Risk Score

Age

<35

0

35-49

22

>50

34

Obesity

Waist Circumference Female <80 cm, Male <90 cm

0

Female 80-89 cm. Male 90-99 cm

11

Female >90 cm. Male >100 cm

20

Physical Activity

Vigorous Exercise

0

Mild Exercise

13

No Exercise

18

Family History

Two Nondiabetic Parents

0

Either Parent Having Diabetes

18

Both Parent Having Diabetes

29

BMI

<25

0

25-29

11

30-34

16

>35

29

Maximum Score

130

Score >95: Very High Risk, 70-95:High Risk, 35-69: Medium Risk, <35: Low Risk

Visualizing the confusion matrix

FIGURE 6.9 Visualizing the confusion matrix.

TABLE 6.10 Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity Percentage Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Logistic

regression

Accuracy (O/o) '

Precision

(O/O)

Recall («/о)

Sensitivity

(O/o)

Specificity

(O/O)

Cambridge

84.42

87.36

93.13

97.70

55.70

Fiance

87.58

90.36

90.35

90.35

82.55

UK

84.52

87.49

93.07

93.07

56.62

Danish

82.69

85.76

91.98

91.98

55.83

The optimum value (80%) is considered as the high risk score for the diabetes that is detected based on the ROCs for Cambridge, France, UK, and Danish, as shown in Figure 6.10.

Optimum value using ROC

FIGURE 6.10 Optimum value using ROC.

TABLE 6.11 Combination 1 (Without Considering BMI)

Accuracy (%) Precision (%) Sensitivity (%)

Specificity (%)

Cambridge

Logistic Regression

78.87

82.06

97.89

92.66

Gaussian Bayes Model

83.54

83

84

81

Random Forest

78

75

78

75

Decision Tree

72

80

72

74

France

Logistic Regression

73.94

78.76

81.55

60.17

Gaussian Bayes Model

71.3

73

71

72

Random Forest

77

74

76

73

Decision Tree

70

75

70

71

UK

Logistic Regression

79.05

82.15

97.75

92.77

Gaussian Bayes Model

84

84

84

82

Random Forest

78

75

78

75

Decision Tree

80

73

75

73

Danish

Logistic Regression

76.53

80.38

97.13

90.48

Gaussian Bayes Model

80.81

81

81

78

Random Forest

75

72

75

72

Decision Tree

76

70

72

70

Accuracy (%)

Precision (%)

Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%)

Cambridge

Logistic Regression

84.42

87.36

97.70

55.70

Gaussian Bayes Model

77.4

74

77

70

Random Forest

86.5

90

86

87

Decision Tree

65.5

74

64

66

France

Logistic Regression

87.58

90.36

90.35

82.55

Gaussian Bayes Model

67.50

66

67

61

Random Forest

80

87

80

80

Decision Tree

64

65.8

65.3

62

UK

84.52

87.49

93.07

56.62

Logistic Regression

84.52

87.49

93.07

56.62

Gaussian Bayes Model

77.45

75

77

70

Random Forest

86.5

90

86

87

Decision Tree

76

67

76

68

Danish

Logistic Regression

82.69

85.76

91.98

55.83

Gaussian Bayes Model

75.3

73

75

68

Random Forest

84.5

89

84

85

Decision Tree

74

65

74

64

TABLE 6.13 Combination 3 (Without Considering WC)

Accuracy (%)

Precision (%)

Sensitivity (%)

Specificity (%)

Cambridge

Logistic Regression

82.09

84.84

97.55

93.27

Gaussian Bayes Model

83.16

84

83

80

Random Forest

87

86

86

86

Decision Tree

77

72

77

71

France

Logistic Regression

87.58

90.36

90.35

82.55

Gaussian Bayes Model

71.40

73

71

72

Random Forest

69

70

69

69

Decision Tree

70

75

70

71

UK

Logistic Regression

82.01

85.00

92.88

86.32

Gaussian Bayes Model

81.90

83

82

78

Random Forest

88

86

86

86

Decision Tree

76

71

76

71

Danish

Logistic Regression

81.46

84.53

91.86

86.54

Gaussian Bayes Model

80.05

80

80

76

Random Forest

90

89

89

89

Decision Tree

75

71

75

71

Relation between different features for the Cambridge system is shown in Figure 6.11. The graph is plotted according to the pah using the correlation feature, as shown in Figure 6.12. A similar approach is applied to all the remaining T2D systems of European countries and then analyzed.

Correlation between the features for the Cambridge system

FIGURE 6.11 Correlation between the features for the Cambridge system.

The ROC curve is drawn for European countries with different algorithms, which is fully used to identify the risk score, as demonstrated in Figure 6.13.

The Cambridge system is cross-validated using AUC and its value is 0.8829. The France system is cross-validated using AUC and its value is 0.9408. The UK system is cross-validated using AUC and its value is 0.8962. The Danish system is cross-validated using AUC and its value is 0.8848.

Similarly, about 514,384 samples are used for analysis. Optimization of diabetes data using KNN classifier, DT, RF, SVM, and GB model is compared, as shown in Table 6.14.

Pair plot according to correlation feature values

FIGURE 6.12 Pair plot according to correlation feature values.

ROC curves showing the performance of the diabetes risk score in predicting diabetes

FIGURE 6.13 ROC curves showing the performance of the diabetes risk score in predicting diabetes.

Machine Learning Algorithm

Accuracy (Cambridge)

Accuracy (France)

Accuracy (UK)

Accuracy (Danish)

KNN classifier

Training set: 0.99 Test set: 0.98

Training set: 1.00 Test set:1.00

Training set: 0.99 Test set: 0.99

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 0.99

Decision tr ee

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Random forest

Training set: 1.00 Test set: 1.00

Training set: 1.00 Test set:1.00

Training set: 0.87 Test set: 0.86

Training set: 0.827 Test set: 0.827

Support vector machine

Training set: 0.87 Test set: 0.86

Training set:0.875 Test set: 0.876

Training set: 0.965 Test set: 0.965

Training set: 0.95 Test set: 0.95

Gaussian Bayes model

Training set: 0.7744 Test set: 0.7738

Training set: 0.6760 Test set: 0.6745

Training set: 0.7745 Test set: 0.7748

Training set: 0.7526 Test set: 0.7534

By considering the simple five parameters, namely, age, family history of diabetes, WC, physical activity, and BMI, the system was developed. Quickly, the data for these factors were obtained by five inquiries and scores acquired for these elements, as shown in Table 6.15.

TABLE 6.15 Diabetes Risk Score for European Countries

Parameters

Risk Score

Age

<35

0

35—49

15

>50

23

Obesity

Waist Circumference Female <80 cm, Male <90

0

cm

17

Female 80-89 cm. Male 90-99 cm

20

Female >90 cm, Male >100 cm

Physical Activity

Vigorous Exercise

0

Mild Exercise

8

No Exercise

12

Family History

Two Nondiabetic Parents

0

Either Parent Having Diabetes

19

Both Parents Having Diabetes

26

ВШ

<25

0

25-29

11

30-34

15

>35

19

Maximum Score

100

Score >70:Very High Risk. 51-69: High Risk, 30-50: Medium Risk, <30: Low Risk

From this work, it is observed that performance of the system is better using logistic regression compared to other machine learning algorithms for both Asian and European countries. The corresponding bar chart of accuracy calculation using logistic regression for Asian and European countries is shown in Figures 6.14 and 6.15. For India, China, Sri Lanka, and Oman, the accuracy is 97.78%, 96.98%, 97.08%, and 97.175%, respectively. Similarly, for Cambridge, France, UK, and Danish, the accuracy is 84.42%, 87.58%, 84.52%, and 82.69%, respectively.

Accuracy using logistic regr ession for Asian countries

FIGURE 6.14 Accuracy using logistic regr ession for Asian countries.

Accuracy using logistic regression for European countries

FIGURE 6.15 Accuracy using logistic regression for European countries.

CONCLUSION AND SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK

A simple diabetes risk assessment tool is developed and validated. A diabetes risk score system is developed for Asian and European countries using five different parameters, namely, age, WC, family history, physical activity, and BMI.

Several risk score tools are developed, but predicting the correct risk score without losing simplicity is really a challenging task. The proposed system is compared with the existing risk score system for the accuracy and performance. It can also be applied to the different ethnic groups. From this work, it is observed that performance of the system is better using logistic regression compared to other machine learning algorithms. In conclusion, the diabetes risk score system is developed that can be used in a stepwise screening strategy for T2D to provide individual age-specific personalized T2D risk score, using p coefficient for each year instead of making an age group. From Tables 6.9 and 6.15, it is concluded that score with <35 for Asian countries and <30 for European countries is considered as low risk, 35-69 for Asian countries and 30-50 for European countries is considered as medium risk, 70-95 for Asian countries and 51-69 for European countries is considered as high risk, and finally >95 for Asian countries and >70 for European countries is considered as very high risk. Optimum values >95 for Asian countries and >80 for European countries are identified using the ROC, and these values are validated using AUCs. This tool also provides the information about which factor affects T2D more. In future, the precautionary measure for this T2D will be provided by the expert panel.

KEYWORDS

  • type 2 diabetes
  • risk score
  • artificial intelligence

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