Batch Adsorption Process of Metals and Anions for Remediation of Contaminated Water


IntroductionAdsorption: A Brief HistoryAbsorptionAdsorption ProcessWater Treatment by Batch Adsorption ProcessScope and Outline of the ChaptersAdsorbents: Classification, Characteristics, Chemical Nature, and Interaction with ContaminantsClassification of AdsorbentsCarbon-Based MaterialsActivated CarbonGrapheneGraphene OxidesReduced Graphene OxidesCarbon NanotubesNano-adsorbentsCarbon-Based Nano-adsorbentsMetal Oxide Nano-adsorbentsNanocomposite AdsorbentsInorganic– Organic Hybrids (Metal– Organic Frameworks)Green AdsorbentsZeolitesCharacteristics of AdsorbentsPhysical CharacteristicsChemical CharacteristicsAdsorptionPhysical AdsorptionChemical AdsorptionChemical Nature of Adsorbents and Interaction with Metals and AnionsAdsorption Mechanisms of Metals and AnionPhysical AdsorptionIon ExchangeElectrostatic InteractionSurface ComplexationPrecipitationEffect of Functionalization of Adsorbents on Adsorption of Metals and AnionsOxygen-Bearing Functional GroupsNitrogen-Bearing Functional GroupsSulfur-Bearing Functional GroupsAdsorbent Containing Multiple Functional GroupsImpact of Factors on Remediation of Major Toxic Elements (Vanadium, Chromium, Nickel, Arsenic, Strontium, Cadmium, Mercury, Lead, Uranium) Via Batch Adsorption ProcessVanadiumEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Surface ModificationMechanismDesorptionChromiumEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Surface ModificationEffect of MaterialMechanismDesorptionNickelEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting Ions and Surface ModificationMechanismDesorptionArsenicEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Temperature and AgitationMechanismDesorptionStrontiumEffect of pHZeta PotentialEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Adsorbent's ModificationMechanismDesorptionCadmiumEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting Ions and Comparison with Other IonsEffect of Surface ModificationEffect of MaterialEffect of TemperatureMechanism.DesorptionMercuryEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting Ions and TemperatureMechanismDesorption and ReuseLeadEffect of pHEffect of the Presence of IonsZeta PotentiaEffect of Surface Modification and MaterialMechanismDesorptionUraniumEffect of pHZeta PotentialEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Surface ModificationStabilityEffect of Material and TemperatureMechanismDesorptionRemediation of Essential Elements Exerting Toxicity on Excessive Exposure (Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se) Via Batch Adsorption in Response to Variable Factors and Elucidation of the Mechanism for the Batch Adsorption ProcessManganeseEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Surface Modification and TemperatureDesorptionCobaltEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsMechanism and DesorptionCopperEffect of pH and MorphologyMechanismDesorptionZincEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsMechanismDesorptionSeleniumEffect of pHZeta PotentialEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Materials and AdsorbatesEffect of TemperaturePretreatmentRole of Iron and OxygenMechanismDesorptionImpact of Factors on Remediation of Miscellaneous (Fe, Cs) and Nontoxic Elements (Sc, Ti, Ga, Ge) Via Batch Adsorption ProcessIronEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Surface ModificationEffect of the MaterialEffect of TemperatureMiscellaneousCesiumEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Surface ModificationEffect of TemperatureEffect of RadiationMechanism.DesorptionMiscellaneousScandiumTitaniumGalliumEffect of pH and Coexisting IonsEffect of Temperature and DesorptionGermaniumEffect of pH and DesorptionImpact of Factors on Remediation of Anions (Fluoride, Nitrate, Perchlorate, and Sulfate) Via Batch Adsorption ProcessesFluorideEffect of pHZeta PotentialEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of Surface ModificationEffect of MaterialEffect of TemperatureMechanismDesorptionNitrateEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of the Material and Surface ModificationMechanismDesorptionPerchlorateEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting IonsEffect of the MaterialMechanismDesorptionSulfateEffect of pHEffect of Coexisting Ions and Surface ModificationMechanismDesorptionImpact of Initial Concentration, Adsorbent Dose, and Ionic Strength on Batch Adsorption of Metals and Anions and Elucidation of the MechanismEffect of Initial Concentration on Adsorption of Metals and AnionsEffect of Adsorbent Dose on the Adsorption of Metals and AnionsEffect of Ionic Strength on the Adsorption of Metals and AnionsKinetic, Isotherm, and Thermodynamic Studies for Batch Adsorption of Metals and Anions, and Management of Adsorbents after the Adsorption ProcessKinetic StudyIsotherm StudyThermodynamicsManagement of Adsorbent after the Adsorption ProcessUse as a CatalystUse for the Production of CeramicsUse as a FertilizerEconomic Viability: Desorption vs DisposalConclusion
 
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