Printed Antennas: Theory and Design

Basic Theory and Design of Printed AntennasEvolution and Upcoming Growth of Printed AntennasFeatures of Printed AntennasFeeding TechniquesCoaxial FeedingMicrostrip FeedingProximity-Coupled FeedingAperture-Coupled FeedingPerformance Factors of Printed AntennasRadiation PatternDirectivityAntenna GainBandwidthPolarizationAxial RatioCharacteristics of Printed AntennasDifferent Shapes of Printed AntennasGeneral Characteristics of Basic PatchesThe Rectangular PatchThe Circular PatchThe Triangular PatchAnnular Ring PatchField of Applications for Printed AntennasAdvantages and Disadvantages of Printed AntennasTechniques Developed for Low-Profile Printed AntennasFeatures of Printed Antenna TechnologyBasic Issues and Design LimitationsAnalysis Methods for Some Common PatchesAnalysis of Rectangular Patch Antenna by Transmission Line ModelAnalysis of Circular Patch Antenna by Cavity ModelSpecial Measurement Techniques for Printed AntennasSubstrate PropertiesConnector CharacterizationMeasurements of Printed Lines and NetworksNear-Field ProbingEfficiency MeasurementSummary RemarksReferencesLatest Trends in the Field of Printed AntennasIntroductionLatest Research Areas in the Field of Printed AntennasHigh-Gain Printed AntennasSuper-Wideband Printed AntennasPrinted Antennas with Circular Polarization (CP) FeaturesECC Reduction in MIMO Printed AntennaPrinted Antenna with Low RCS ValuePrinted Antenna Design for 5G ApplicationsConclusionReferencesRadiation Pattern Agility of Printed AntennasIntroductionTypes of Reconfigurable AntennasMicrowave RF SwitchesPIN Diode SwitchesVaractor DiodeMicroelectromechanical SystemsPIN Diode-Based Reconfigurable Patch Antenna for Pattern AgilityConclusionReferencesBand Hopping in Printed AntennasIntroductionTheory of MOS Loaded CMSA with an AirgapMetal Oxide SemiconductorDouble MOS Loaded Circular Microstrip Antenna with an AirgapSpecifications of Double MOS Loaded CMSA with an AirgapRadiation Pattern of CMSAProperties of Double MOS Loaded CMSA with an AircapBST Varactor Diode Loaded Stacked CMSAAnalysis of Upper PatchAnalysis of Lower PatchStaked Circular PatchBST Varactor Diode Loaded Stacked Microstrip PatchRadiation Pattern of Stacked CMSASpecifications of BST Varactor Diode Loaded Stacked CMSAProperties of BST Varactor Diode Loaded Stacked CMSAConclusionReferencesPattern and Polarization Diversity in AntennasIntroductionPattern DiversityEffect of Pattern Diversity on Diversity Gain (DG) and Cross-Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC)Polarization DiversityDiversity Gain of Polarization Diversity systemIf Two Orthogonal Components are TransmittedIf a Single Linearly Polarized Component is TransmittedIf a Circularly Polarized Antenna Transmits a Right-Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP) ComponentIf the Radiated Signal is Obliquely PolarizedMassive MIMO AntennasConclusionReferencesCompact Printed Antenna Designs: Need for UWB CommunicationsIntroductionAn Asymmetric U-shaped Printed Monopole Antenna Embedded with a T-shaped StripAntenna Configuration and Its SpecificationsParametric Study of the AntennaEffect of the Radiating PatchEffect of the Gap between the Ground Plane and Radiating PatchEffect of the Ground Plane StructureComparative Results of the AntennaSmall Size Scarecrow-Shaped CPW- and Microstrip Line-Fed UWB AntennasCPW-Fed Scarecrow-Shaped Patch AntennaAntenna DesignParametric StudyRadiation Pattern of the CPW-Fed AntennaMicrostrip Line-Fed UWB AntennaAntenna DesignAntenna ResultsRadiation Pattern of the Microstrip Line-Fed AntennaA Half-Cut Design of a Low-Profile UWB Planar AntennaDevelopment of Antenna and Its OptimizationReturn Loss of the AntennaPMW Technique and Current Distribution AnalysisAntenna Gain and Group DelayRadiation CharacteristicsA Modified Microstrip Line-Fed Compact UWB Printed AntennaAntenna DesignParametric Study of the Designed AntennaAntenna Fabrication and ResultsVSWR MeasurementRealized Gain and Radiation EfficiencyRadiation CharacteristicsTime-Domain AnalysisConclusionsReferencesCircularly Polarized Printed AntennasIntroductionCircularly Polarized Stacked AntennasA Triple-CP Band Reconfigurable Stacked AntennaQuad-Band CP Stacked AntennasTriple-Band Reconfigurable Antenna DesignQuad-Band Antenna DesignProperties of Circularly Polarized AntennasSingle-Band Circularly Polarized AntennasReconfigurable Circularly Polarized Microstrip AntennasImpedance Bandwidth Improvement of Triple-Band CP AntennasParametric Study of Quad-Band CP AntennasSimulated and Measured ResultsOperating MechanismConclusionReferencesSpecial Techniques of Printed AntennaIntroductionC-Shaped Recongfiurable AntennasC-Shaped Antenna with Switchable Wideband Frequency NotchMultiband Multipolarized Reconfigurable Circularly Polarized Monopole Antenna with a Simple Biasing NetworkDesign of C Shape Antenna with Switchable Wideband Frequency NotchMultiband Multipolarized Reconfigurable Circularly Polarized Monopole Antenna with a Simple Biasing NetworkCharacteristics of the C-Shaped Antenna with a Switchable Wideband Frequency NotchOther Radiation CharacteristicsMultiband Multipolarized Reconfigurable Circularly Polarized Monopole Antenna with a Simple Biasing NetworkRadiation MechanismParametric StudyMagnetoelectric Dipole AntennaAntenna DesignParametric StudiesCharacteristics of the Magnetoelectric Dipole AntennaCONCLUSIONREFERENCESReconfigurable Printed AntennasIntroductionDifferent Approaches for Attaining ReconfigurabilityElectrical Method-Based Reconfigurable AntennasRF-MEMS-Based Reconfigurable AntennasPIN Diode-Based Reconfigurable AntennasVaractor Diode-Based Reconfigurable AntennasOptical Methods/Photoconductive SwitchesPhysically/Mechanically Reconfigurable Printed AntennasMaterial-Based Reconfigurable AntennasApplicationsFrequency- Reconfigurable Antennas for Cognitive Radio SystemPattern-Reconfigurable Antennas for the MIMO SystemsReconfigurable Antennas for Satellite SystemsMulti-Reconfigurable Antennas: The Latest TrendConclusionReferencesDielectric Resonator-Based Multiple-Input Multiple- Output (MIMO) AntennasIntroductionWireless Communication SystemsNeed of Multiple AntennasMIMO Wireless CommunicationMIMO TechniquesMIMO Antenna SystemsPerformance Metrics of MIMO AntennasCorrelation CoefficientDiversity GainMean Effective GainTotal Active Reflection CoefficientChannel Capacity Loss ( CCL)Problem in MIMO Antenna SystemsIntroduction to Dielectric Resonator Antennas ( DRAs)Characteristics of Dielectric Resonator Antennas ( DRAs)Applications of DRAsBasic Shapes of DRAsCylindrical Dielectric Resonator AntennasFeeding MechanismsMIMO Dielectric Resonator AntennasMIMO DRA ExamplesGeneration of Orthogonal ModeExcitation of Degenerated ModesIntroduction of the Defected Ground PlaneUse of Decoupling StructuresMeta-Surface/Frequency-Selective Surface/EBGbetween Two DRAsSeparation of Radiation PatternsConclusionReferencesAdvances in Patch Antenna Design Using EBG StructuresIntroductionEBG Structures and Their PropertiesEBG Structures in Patch Antenna DesignBandwidth Improvement in Patch Antennas Using EBG StructuresGain Improvement Using EBG StructuresMutual Coupling Reduction Using EBG StructuresBand-Notch Operation in Patch Antennas Using EBG StructuresDual-Band and Multi-Band Characteristics Using EBG StructuresA Low-Profile MPA Using EBG StructuresReal-Life Applications of EBG Patch AntennasHigh-Precision GPSWearable ElectronicsRadio Frequency Identification (RFID) SystemsRadar SystemsConclusionReferencesDesign of Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) Printed AntennasIntroductionTypes of FSSOn the Basis of FSS ElementsOn the Basis of StructureSingle-Layer FSSMultilayer FSS-Dimensional FSSOn the Basis of ApplicationActive FSSTextile FSSMeta-Skin FSSWearable FSSAbsorber FSSPrincipal of OperationFSS Operational TheoryPeriodic Structure (FSS)Equivalent Circuit ModelGrating StripSquare LoopJerusalem CrossApplications of FSSEnhancement of the Gain and Bandwidth of the Antenna SystemsIsolation in MIMO AntennasSpatial FilteringFSS for Reconfiguration of the AntennasElectromagnetic ShieldingFSS Radomes for Antenna ProtectionConclusionReference
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