I: Biodiesel and Petrodiesel Fuels: Science, Technology, Health, and the Environment

Biodiesel and

Petrodiesel Fuels

Biodiesel and Petrodiesel Fuels: Science, Technology, Health, and the Environment

Ozcan Konur

Introduction

Crude oils have been primary sources of energy and fuels, such as petrodiesel. However, significant public concerns about their sustainability, price fluctuations, and adverse environmental impact have emerged since the 1970s (Ahmadun et al., 2009; Atlas, 1981; Babich and Moulijn, 2003; Haritash and Kaushik, 2009; Hazen et al., 2010; Kilian, 2009; Leahy and Colwell, 1990; Perron, 1989; Peters, 1986, Peterson et al., 2003). Thus, biooils (Bridgwater, 2012; Bridgwater et al., 1999; Bridgwater and Peacocke, 2000; Czernik and Bridgwater, 2004; di Blasi, 2008; Elliott, 2007; Mohan et al., 2006; Mortensen et al., 2011; Ragauskas et al., 2014; Tuck et al., 2012; Zakzeski et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2007) and biooil-based biodiesel fuels (Agarwal, 2007; Brennan and Owende, 2010; Chen et al., 2011; Chisti, 2007, 2008; Gekko and Timasheff, 1981; Graboski and McCormick, 1998; Griffiths and Harrison, 2009; Grima et al., 2003; Hill et al., 2006; Hu et al., 2008; Knothe, 2005; Lapuerta et al., 2008; Lardon et al., 2009; Mata et al., 2010; Pagliaro et al., 2007; Rodolfi et al., 2009; Schenk et al., 2008; Srivastava and Prasad, 2000; Wijffels and Barbosa, 2010; Zhang et al., 2003a-2003b; Zhou et al., 2008) have emerged as an alternative to crude oils and crude oil-based petrodiesel fuels (Birch and Cary, 1996; Buscaet al., 1998; McCreanor et al„ 2007; Robinson et al., 2007; Rogge et al., 1993; Salvi et al., 1999; Schauer et al., 1999; Shelef, 1995; Song, 2003; Song and Ma, 2003), respectively, in recent decades. Nowadays, although petrodiesel fuels are still used extensively, biodiesel fuels are being used increasingly in the transportation and power sectors (Konur, 2021a-ag).

Therefore, there has been great public interest in the development of environment and human-friendly and sustainable petrodiesel and biodiesel fuels (Birch and Cary, 1996; Busca et al., 1998; Chisti, 2007; Hu et al., 2008; Lapuerta et al., 2008; Mata et al., 2010; McCreanor et al., 2007; Rodolfi et al., 2009; Schenk et al., 2008). However, it is necessary to reduce the total cost of the biodiesel production by reducing the feedstock cost through the improvement of biomass and lipid productivity (Brennan and Owende, 2010; Chen et al., 2011; Griffiths and Harrison, 2009; Grima et al., 2003; Hu et al., 2008; Lardon et al., 2009; Rodolfi et al., 2009; Wijffel and Barbosa, 2010) in a biorefinery context (John et al., 2011; Sialve et al., 2009). It is also necessary to mitigate the adverse impact of petrodiesel fuels on the environment and human health (Busca et al., 1998; Delfino et al., 2005; Diaz-Sanchez et al., 1997; Koebel et al., 2000; Lapuerta et al., 2008; McCreanor et al., 2007; Mills et al., 2007; Salvi et al., 1999; Schauer et al., 1999; Shelef, 1995; Song, 2003; Song and Ma, 2003; Stanislaus et al., 2010).

Furthermore, for the efficient development of research in this field, it is necessary to develop efficient incentive structures for the primary stakeholders and to inform these stakeholders about the research (Konur, 2000. 2OO2a-c, 2006a-b, 2007a-b); North, 1991a, 1991b)

Although there have been over 1,500 reviews and book chapters in this field (Brennan and Owende, 2010; Bridgwater and Peacocke, 2000; Busca et al., 1998; Chen et al.. 2011; Chisti, 2007,2008; di Blasi, 2008; Elliott, 2007; Grima et al.. 2003; Hu et al., 2008; Lapuerta et al.. 2008; Mata et al., 2010; Mohan et al., 2006; Mortensen et al., 2011; Ragauskas et al., 2014; Schenk et al., 2008; Tuck et al., 2012; Zakzeski et al., 2010), there has been no review of the research as a representative sample of whole-population studies done in the field of both petrodiesel and biodiesel fuels.

This handbook provides such a sample and this chapter introduces the key issues and findings.

Materials and Methodology

This book chapter provides a review of the representative sample of the whole population of research studies on both petrodiesel and biodiesel fuels, presented in this handbook in three volumes.

Table 1.1 provides information on the three key research fronts in this field and Table 1.2 provides information on the 58 chapters provided in this handbook. The related references are listed in the reference section to this chapter. The key issues and findings from these studies are provided and discussed briefly below in light of whole-population studies conducted in this field.

Contents of the Handbook

Volume 1: Biodiesel Fuels in General

There are four secondary research streams in the primary one of biodiesel fuels in general: an introduction to petrodiesel and biodiesel fuels (Part I), biooils (Part II), biodiesel fuels in general (Part III), and glycerol (Part IV) with four, six, seven, and three chapters, respectively, in the first volume.

 
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