Identification of Botanical and Geographical Origins of Honey‑Based on Polyphenols

Honey has been used as a sweetener and a medical natural product since ancient times. Several archeological proofs are available for the existence of beekeeping practices and the use of honeys. Rock paintings from the Mesolithic cultures represent hunting activities of honey. The ancient Egyptians used honey as a medicine and a special product for embalming mummies. Biblical references are also available about the use of honey and honey was used as a medical product during the medieval times and in the 17th century [39].

INTRODUCTION

The application of honey is very diverse around the globe: it is used in the traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda medicine, and also in apitherapy [14, 55]. Honey is a complex food matrix, containing more than 20 different types of sugar, water (around 20%), proteins, minerals, vitamins, organic acids, enzymes, and biologically active components [73]. As an exceptional natural product, honey contains a variety of phenolic compounds representing its key phytochemicals. This phytochemical acts as an important quality parameter and account for the color, sensory profile and antioxidant activity of honey. Total phenolic content of honey is a function of its botanical source and geographical origin, its amount varying from 46 to 753 pgg-1. Honeys from different floral types are significantly different in their chemical composition and phenolic profile. Darker honeys are considered to have higher amounts of flavonoid components and less phenolic acid derivatives than the lighter ones.

Presence of polyphenols, especially flavonoids in honey, offers many health benefits. These also act as a relevant marker in identification of the botanical and eventually the geographical origin of honey. In order to explore the therapeutic value of honey, it is highly desirable to have a deep knowledge on the amount and composition of phenolic compounds in honey [49]. It is also known that the botanical and geographical origin of honey has an important role in its medicinal use. Manuka honeys for example are well known for their exceptional antimicrobial activity, linden honeys are usually used in cough, flu, and sinusitis, while chestnut honeys are considered to have effect on blood circulation, etc. [14].

This chapter gives an overview on main phytochemicals (phenolic acids and flavonoids)components in honey based on the different botanical origins. Chapter also discusses geographical origin, which has a direct impact on phenolic compounds, and thus the therapeutic value of honey.

CLASSIFICATION OF POLYPHENOLS

FLAVONOIDS

Honey contains about 6 mgkg'1 of flavonoids, and this value is higher in pollen (0.5%) and even higher in propolis (up to 10%) [6]. Flavonoids are present mainly in the aglycone form in both propolis and honey, and have been identified as flavanones, flavonones, and flavanols. The flavonoid family is characterized by the generic presence of an 1-, 2- or 3-phenyl-1,4-benzopy- rone. They are further classified in number of subfamilies, depending on the oxidation state of the carbon atoms and the substitution of the benzopyrone ring [22]. Variety of polyphenols in different honey sources were compiled and suggested as markers of origin by Gasic et al. [32]. Many other authors also suggest selected phenolics as useful indicators of honeys of different origins. Potential marker compounds in the literature are shown in Table 5.1 in bold and italics. Important flavonoid compounds identified in honey along with their botanical sources are indicated in Table 5.1. Common flavonoid components (such as: quercetin, pinocembrin. pinobanskin, crhysin, kaemp- ferol, and apigenin) are present in different types of honeys. On the other hand, some flavonoids like naringenin and hesperetin are specific and were mainly detected in well-defined honey types (e.g., citius). Some components like tricetin, acacetin, ellagic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were reported only in few cases.

TABLE 5.1 Major Flavonoids in Honey and Their Botanical Occurrence

Flavonoid Subclass and Structure

Flavonoid Type and Structure

Botanical Source and References

Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) [15, 50, 65] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [15]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [25, 27, 28, 53, 63]

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [41] Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [63, 84] Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15, 53]

Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) [82]

Heather (Erica spp.) [41, 76]

Honeydew [15, 28, 54, 65]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [15, 65]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptospennum scoparium) [4,17,18, 83] Pine (Pinus L.) [53]

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [28, 70] Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) [51]

Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) [15]

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) [6, 35,65] Thyme (Thymus L.) [53]

TABLE 5.1 (Continued)

Flavonoid Subclass and Structure

Flavonoid Type and Structure

Botanical Source and References

Acacia (Robiniapseudoacacia) [15,18, 50, 65]

Australian jelly bush (Leptospennum polygalifolium) [83]

Azadirachta indica [25]

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [15]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [25, 27, 63]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae eucalyptus sp., Eucaliptus pilligaensis) [25, 32, 36, 63]

Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15]

Honeydew [15, 65]

Lavender (Lavandula spp.) [6, 32]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [15, 65]

Litchi (Litchi chinensis) [86]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [36,63]

Manuka (Leptospennum scoparium) [17,18, 83] Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) [51]

Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) [15]

Sunflower (Helianthus animus L.) [65]

Thyme (Thymus L.) [18, 42]

Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4, 18]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp., Eucaliptus camaldulensis) [25, 32] Heather (Erica spp.) [6, 32]

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia)

[15, 18, 24, 50,56]

Astralagus spp. [24]

Chaste tree (Vitexagnus-castus) [24] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [15,24]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [63]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [63] Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15]

Honeydew [15]

TABLE 5.1 (Continued)

Flavonoid Subclass and Structure

Flavonoid Type and Structure

Botanical Source and References

Linden (Tiliaspp) [15, 24]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [4] Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24] Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) [51]

Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) [15] Thyme (Thymus L.) [42]

Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4,18]

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [15,18, 50, 65] Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [41] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [15]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [27, 28, 63]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [63]

Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15]

Heather (Erica spp.) [41]

Honeydew [15, 28, 65]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [15, 38, 65]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [17,18] Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [6,28]

Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) [51]

Sunflower (Heliantlius annuus L.) [6, 65]

Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia)

[15, 18,24, 50, 56, 65]

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [41] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [15]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [25, 27, 28, 53, 63]

Diplotaxis tenuifolia [77]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [25, 63] Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15, 53]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) [25]

Heather (Erica spp.) [41]

Honeydew [15, 28, 65]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [15, 57, 65]

Litchi (Litchi chinensis) [86]

Flavonoid Subclass and Structure

Flavonoid Type and Structure

Botanical Source and References

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [17, 83]

Pine (Pinus L.) [24, 53]

Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24] Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [28, 32, 70] Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) [51]

Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) [15]

Strawberry tree (Arbutus undedo L.) [18] Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) [35, 65]

Thyme (Thymus L.) [53]

Tualang (Koompassia excels) [18]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [17] Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [6, 32, 70]

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [18, 65] Azadirachta indica [25]

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [41, 76]

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [15]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [53]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [25,36,63]

Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15, 53]

Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) [43]

Heather (Erica spp.) [18,41, 76]

Honeydew [15, 28, 65]

Linden (Till a spp.) [65]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [36]

Pine (Pinus L.) [53]

Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) [15]

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) [65]

Thyme (Thymus L.) [18, 42, 53]

TABLE 5.1 (Continued)

Flavonoid Subclass and Structure

Flavonoid Type and Structure

Botanical Source and References

Australian jelly bush (Leptospennum potygalifolium) [83]

Heather (Erica spp.) [6, 32]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [83]

Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia)

[15, 18, 50, 65,78]

Australian jelly bush (Leptospennum potygalifolium) [83]

Azadirachta indica [25]

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [15,24] Citrus (Citrus spp.) [25, 27, 28, 53] Clover (Triflohum spp.) [18] Diplotaxistenuifolia [77]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [25, 35, 36, 59, 63]

Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15, 53]

Honeydew [15, 28, 64, 65]

Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) [82]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) [25]

Heather (Erica spp.) [24]

Japanese grape (Hovenia dulcis) [59] Linden (Tilia spp.) [15, 57, 65]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [36,63] Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium)

[17, 18,44, 83]

Mastic (Schinus terebinthifolius) [59] Pine (PinusL.) [24, 53]

Quitoco (Pluchea sagittalis) [59] Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24]

Flavonoid Subclass and Structure

Flavonoid Type and Structure

Botanical Source and References

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [28]

Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) [51]

Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) [15]

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) [32, 35, 65, 70] Thyme (Thymus L.) [53]

Tualang (Koompassia excels) [44]

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [24, 65] Azadirachta indica [25]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [63]

Diplotaxis tenuifolia [77]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [25, 63] Honeydew [65]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [65]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptospennum scoparium) [17, 83] Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) [65]

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [18] Clover (Triflolium spp.) [48]

Cedrus [48]

Acacia gerardii [5]

Acacia tortilis [5]

Manuka (Leptospennum scoparium) [5] Tualang (Koompassia excels) [5]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [6, 25, 27, 28, 32, 63] Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [63] Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) [43, 82]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

TABLE 5.1 (Continued)

Flavonoid Subclass and Structure

Flavonoid Type and Structure

Botanical Source and References

Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) [15,18, 56, 65] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [15]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [63]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [25, 63, 85] Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15]

Honeydew [15, 28, 64, 65]

Kamahi (Weinmannia racemose) [37]

Leatherwood (Euciyphia lucida) [37]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [15, 65]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [4,17,18, 37] Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [6,18,28,70] Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) [15]

Strawberry tree (Arbutus undedo L.) [18] Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) [6, 65]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [25, 27, 28]

Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15]

Honeydew [15, 28, 68]

Lavender (Lavandula spp.) [32]

Lemon (Citrus spp.) [68]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [15]

Orange (Citrus spp.) [68]

Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [68] Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [28] Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) [15] Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4]

Acacia (Romania) (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [56]

Flavonoid Subclass and Structure

Flavonoid Type and Structure

Botanical Source and References

Acacia (Robiniapseudoacacia) [15,18, 56] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [15]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [63]

Eucalyptus (European) (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [63, 85]

Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [15]

Honey dew [15]

Kamahi (Weinmannia racemose) [37]

Leatherwood (Euciyphia lucida) [37]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [15]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [17, 37] Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [6,18, 70] Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) [15]

Strawberry tree (Arbutus undedo L.) [18] Sunflower (Helianthus animus L.) [6]

Heather (Erica spp) [38]

Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4]

Lavender (Lavandula spp.) [24] Litchi (Litchi chinensis) [25] Oak (Quercus) [24]

Australian jelly bush (Leptospermum polygalifolium) [83]

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [41] Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) [43]

Heather (Erica spp.) [6, 32, 35, 41, 70]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [83]

'Potential marker compounds proposed in the literature are in bold italics.

NON-FLAVONOID PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN HONEY

Some of the non-flavonoid polyphenols in honey are listed in Table 5.2. These are mainly phenolic acids in honeys (such as: syringic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and. ferulic acid). On the other hand, isoferulic acid, m-coumaric acid, homoanisic acid and o-anisic acid were found only in few types of honey.

TABLE 5.2 Major Non-Flavonoid Phenolic Compounds in Honeys and their Occurrence According to Botanical Sources

Non-Flavonoid Polyphenol and its Structure

Phenolic Acid in Honey and its Structure

Botanical Source and References

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [63]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [63] Heather (Erica spp.) [26]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [4] Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4]

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [24] Azadirachta indica [25]

Buckwheat (Fagopynnn esculentum Moench) [41]

Carob fCeratonia silique) [48]

Citrus (Citrus spp.) [53]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [63] Euphorbia milii [48]

Fir (Abies alba Mill.) [53]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) [25]

Heather (Erica spp.) [41, 48, 57]

Lavender (Lavandula spp.) [48] Leatherwood (Euciyphia lucida) [37]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [4,18] Oak (Quercus) [24]

Pine (Pinus L.) [24, 48, 53]

Thyme (Thymus L.) [18, 53]

Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4, 18]

Non-Flavonoid Polyphenol and its Structure

Phenolic Acid in Honey and its Structure

Botanical Source and References

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [40] Asphodel (Asphodelus microcarpus) [32] Canola (Brassica napus) [40]

Kamahi (Weinmannia racemose) [37] Leatherwood (Eucryphia lucida) [37] Manuka (Leptospemium scoparium) [4, 37]

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [24,56] Astralagus spp. [24]

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [6,41]

Chaste tree (Vitexagnus-castus) [24] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [24, 26,32] Citrus (Citrus spp.) [63]

Clover (Triflolium spp.) [18, 24]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [63] Heather (Erica spp.) [18, 24, 26, 41, 57] Lavender (Lavandula spp.) [24]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [24, 57]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Oak (Quercus) [24]

Pine (Pinus L.) [24]

Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24]

Buckwheat (.Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [6,41]

Carob (Ceratonia silique) [48] Heather (Erica spp.) [41]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [26, 32]

Canola (Brassica napus) [40]

Orange (Citrus spp.) [40]

Manuka (Leptospennum scoparium) [4]

TABLE 5.2 (Continued)

Non-Flavonoid Polyphenol and its Structure

Phenolic Acid in Honey and its Structure

Botanical Source and References

Astralagus spp. [24]

Buckwheat (Fagopynnn esculentum Moench) [6]

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [18,24,26] Clover (Triflolium spp.) [24]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [59, 63]

Heather (Erica spp.) [18, 24]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [24]

Oak (Quercus) [24]

Pine (Pirns L.) [18, 24]

Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24] Thyme (Thymus L.) [48]

Willow (Salix L.) [76]

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [65] Astra!agus spp. [24]

Australian jelly bush (Leptospennum polygalifolium) [83]

Azadirachta indica [25]

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [24] Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [25, 59, 63]

Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) [82]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) [25]

Heather (Erica spp.) [18, 24, 26] Honeydew [65, 76]

Japanese grape (Hoveniadulcis) [59] Kamahi (Weinmannia racemose) [37] Linden (Tilia spp.) [65]

Litchi (Litchi chinensis) [25]

Manuka (New Zealand) (Leptospermum scoparium) [18, 37, 83]

Oak (Quercus) [24]

Quitoco (Pluchea Sagittalis) [59] Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24] Sunflower (Helianthus animus L.) [65] Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4]

Non-Flavonoid Polyphenol and its Structure

Phenolic Acid in Honey and its Structure

Botanical Source and References

Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) [18,56] Astralagus spp. [24]

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [41]

Cedrus [48]

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [24, 26] Citrus (Citrus spp.) [25, 63]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [48, 63]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) [25]

Heather (Erica spp.) [18, 26, 41, 57] Litchi (Litchi chinensis) [25]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [57]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Pine (Pinus L.) [24, 48]

Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24]

Cedrus [48]

Carob (Ceratonia silique) [48]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [48] Pine (Pinus L.) [48]

Thyme (Thymus L.) [48]

Manuka (Leptospermum scopariunt) [32]

Manuka (Leptospermum scopariunt) [32]

TABLE 5.2 (Continued)

Non-Flavonoid Polyphenol and its Structure

Phenolic Acid in Honey and its Structure

Botanical Source and References

Buckwheat (Fagopynnn esculentum Moench) [6]

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [32]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [63] Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) [32]

Strawberry tree (Arbutus undedo L.) [32] Chaste tree (Vitexagnus-castus) [48] Thyme (Thymus L.) [48]

Acacia (Robiniapseudoacacia) [32, 56] Clover (Triflolium spp.) [18]

Heather (Erica spp.) [18, 26]

Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) [18] Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4, 18]

Acacia (Robiniapseudoacacia) [24,56, 65] Astralagus spp. [24]

Azadirachta indica [25]

Buckwheat (Fagopynnn esculentum Moench) [6, 41, 76]

Non-Flavonoid Polyphenol and its Structure

Phenolic Acid in Honey and its Structure

Botanical Source and References

Capparis [25, 27, 28, 63]

Chaste tree (Vitexagnus-castus) [24] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [24, 26, 70] Citrus (Citrus spp.) [25, 27, 28, 63]

Clover (Trifolium spp.) [25, 27, 28, 63] Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.) [25, 63]

Heather (Erica spp.) [24, 26, 41, 76] Honeydew [15, 28, 65]

Japanese grape (Hoveniadulcis) [59] Lavender (Lavandula spp.) [24]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [24, 65]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptoseprum scoparium [17] Oak (Quercus) [24]

Pine (Pinus L.) [24]

Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24] Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [28] Sunflower (Helianthus animus L.) [65] Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4]

Wild carrot (Daucus carota) [35]

Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia) [26] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [26]

Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) [18, 24, 65] Australian jelly bush (Leptospermum polygalifolium) [30]

Azadirachta indica [25]

Capparis [48]

Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) [24] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [24, 26, 70] Citrus (Citrus spp.) [25, 27, 28, 63]

Clover (Trifolium spp.) [48]

TABLE 5.2 (Continued)

Non-Flavonoid Polyphenol and its Structure

Phenolic Acid in Honey and its Structure

Botanical Source and References

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.)

[25, 63]

Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) [43]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) [25]

Heather (Erica spp.) [24, 26, 41, 57, 76] Honeydew [15, 28, 65]

Lavender (Lavandula spp.) [24]

Linden (Tib a spp.) [24, 57, 65]

Litchi (Litchi chinensis) [25]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptoseprum scoparium)

[17, 18, 30]

Oak (Ouercus) [24]

Pine (Pinus L.) [24]

Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24,48] Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) [28] Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) [35,65] Thyme (Thymus L.) [18]

Tualang (Koompassia excels) [4, 18]

Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia)

[18, 24, 56, 86]

Astralagus spp. [24]

Azadirachta indica [25]

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moencli) [6,41]

Canola (Brassica napus) [54]

Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) [24] Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [24, 26, 32, 70] Citrus (Citrus spp.) [25, 63]

Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sp.)

[25, 63]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) [25]

Heather (Erica spp.) [18,41]

Honeydew [76]

Jujube (Ziziphusjujuba. Mill.) [86]

Non-Flavonoid Polyphenol and its Structure

Phenolic Acid in Honey and its Structure

Botanical Source and References

Linden (Lilia spp.) [54]

Litchi (Litchi chinensis) [25, 86]

Lotus (Fabaceae Lotus sp.) [63]

Manuka (Leptoseprum scoparium) [18] Oak (Quercus) [24]

Pine (Pinus L.) [24]

Raspberry (Rubus) [54]

Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) [24,48] Thyme (Thymus L.) [18]

Willow (Salix L.) [76]

Manuka (Leptoseprum scoparium [17]

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [41]

Heather (Erica spp.) [41]

Manuka (Leptoseprum scoparium) [76]

Mint (Mentha spp.) [32]

Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) [18,32] Azadirachta indica [25]

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) [41]

Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) [43, 82] Ginger (Zingiber officinale) [25] Heather (Erica spp.) [18,41, 76] Honeydew [76]

Thyme (Thymus L. ) [18]

Willow (Salix L.) [76]

TABLE 5.2 (Continued)

Non-Flavonoid Polyphenol and its Structure

Phenolic Acid in Honey and its Structure

Botanical Source and References

Metabolites of phenolic acids

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) [26] Heather (Erica spp.) [26]

Linden (Tilia spp.) [26]

Ling heather (Erica spp., Calluna Vulgaris) [26]

Chestnut (Castanea saliva) [26]

Heather (Erica spp.) [26]

Ling heather (Erica spp., Calluna Vulgaris) [26]

Kamahi (Weinmannia racemose) [37] Leatherwood (Euciyphia lucida) [37] Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [4,37] Milk thistle (Silybummarianum) [22, 32]

Canola (Brassica napus) [26]

Kamahi (Weinmannia racemose) [37] Leatherwood (Euciyphia lucida) [37] Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) [37]

Heather (Erica spp.) [35]

'Potential marker compounds proposed in the literature are in bold italics.

 
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