Radio-Frequency Identification

RFID, the versatile innovation, encourages and helps with improving the uses of IoT human services. RFID is useful for an identification in which it uses a tag or small chip with antenna, which carries data and it can be read by the RFID reader. These data travel through radio waves; it is as similar as barcode technology. The main difference between barcode technology and RFID identification is distance. Barcode requires line of sight between users and the tag, but RFID can identify up to hundreds of meters [50]. It decreases the parental figure’s heaps in home checking and causes them to screen the patients experiencing incessant ailments. The RFID framework in social insurance comprises two primary segments: radio sign transponder (tag) joined to an article (patient or clinical gadgets) and the pursuer. The label consists of two segments: a chip to store the extraordinary character of the article and a reception apparatus to permit the chip to speak with the peruser utilizing the remote medium. The user creates a radio recurrence field to recognize questions through reflected radio influxes of the tag. RFID works by sending the label’s number to the user utilizing radio waves. An ONS (object naming services) looks into the label’s subtleties from a database, for example, when and where it was made. RFID tags are the two type’s active and passive tags. Active tags have an additional power source, but passive tags have no power source. As per the demand, the user can use these tags.

RFID technologies are again divided into two types: near and far. A near-RFID reader uses a coil, which generates a magnetic field while passing the current. These tags have a small coil and it can produce small magnetic fields that encode the signal to be transmitted. Far-RFID has an antenna in a reader and it can generate electromagnetic waves. This tag also uses a dipole antenna and it can transmit messages by using this power.

RFID technology is very useful in many applications like access control, identification, supply chain management, security, authentication, and tracking. The RFID tag detects the object and stores that information for future use if required. It can also control the movement of objects. Fast tag is also an example of RFID technology. RFID technologies are more secure, easy to install, and easy to use.

Cloud in Healthcare

As per today’s demand, cloud computing is a very useful area for storing the collected data. In IoT healthcare, a huge amount of data is generated, so that we need an efficient system to handle this type of data [51]. Cloud computing plays an important role in human healthcare services and applications for making it more effective, speedy, long lasting, and more secure. Cloud computing with IoT can enhance the capacity of storage and efficiency. Cloud computing can directly access the data of IoT, so the security is an essential issue. Cloud services are divided into three categories, according to the usages that are shortly discussed below.

Software as a Service (SaaS): Gives applications to human services suppliers that will empower them to w'ork with well-being information or perform other significant errands. It is an initial service of cloud for IoT healthcare.

Platform as a Service (PaaS): Gives apparatuses to virtualization, organizing, and databasing the executives, and that’s just the beginning for making IoT healthcare much easier, comfortable, and secure.

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): Gives the physical foundation to capacity, servers, and that's just the beginning. These administrations can be utilized to accomplish an assortment of undertakings, yet two key uses are handily recognized in the writing; huge information for the executives and information handling. These two distinct ideas are introduced independently right now. Nonetheless, it is likewise featured that both are basic for a best-in-class IoT social insurance framework, and along these lines ought to be remembered together for future cloud framework plans. This is the interface between client and hospital team that can connect, interact, and perform some operations.

In IoT healthcare cloud, there are huge amounts of data generated w'ithin a minute, so to maintain this cloud is an essential and compulsory step. It includes some functions:

Data storage: To sense and collect the data from different sources is required to store. After storing the data, doctors can monitor this data and further process on it. To analyze the condition and monitor the performance, storage is very important.

Data analysis: This system generates a very huge amount of data, so analysis of data is highly required. Here machine learning and data mining techniques are useful for extracting the useful data from the collected data.

Data cleaning: After data sensing and data analysis, it is very important to clear the useless data. Sometimes, duplicate data consume large amounts of storage and then you can diagnose these data and should clean this for smooth function.

With all these IoT cloud in healthcare focuses toward many important key points; for example, on demand self-services (for providing better availability and accessing), broad network accessing (it is not restricted to the limited space and objects, as the user can access the devices very easily), resource pooling (it means effective use of resources, and it can share the resources with different users as per the use), and handle the rapid changes (these services should be very dynamic so that it can handle the change quickly). In healthcare, the function may change quickly, and in that case, the system must be ready for measurable different functions and handle the rapid changes. Cloud computing plays a very important role in IoT healthcare, or we can say it plays a role of backbone of this system.

Big Data Management

The healthcare industries are already utilizing the benefits of digitization. They maintain their medical records, pharmacy companies, research updates, and many more through electronic database or cloud-based solutions. Big data management is very popular with the five keys that are capacity, speed, assortment, authenticity, and worth. In healthcare applications, managing a huge amount of data with proper planning and function is very important. Big data plays an important role for managing the generated data through different devices.

The term big data includes the incredible amount of data flowing over the cloud or digital world. In the healthcare world, the patient and hospital team generates data exponentially because of digital environment of communication. In IoT healthcare, the use of wearable technologies increases the amount of medical data over the cloud. It estimates over 11 billion devices and sensors connected to the internet that will be growing on a very fast rate.

Big data in healthcare is useful for prediction, curing diseases, monitoring the functions of different sensors, avoiding unnecessary death, and improving the life style of patients or normal human lives. Through IoT healthcare, an active engagement is available for day and night, and the consumer always feels safe and sound because he or she is under the supervision of the doctor. Big data is useful to deliver needed outcomes of patients to the system to ensure the security.

The term “connected health” is used to explain how healthcare became the part of the digital health sector. IoT-based healthcare can signify advancement in communication devices, softwares, hardwares, network, data analysis, big data, and cloud computing.


These days, the shrewd frameworks are primarily utilized for different applications. The progressions in the data and correspondence advancements encourage scientists and designers to understand that the framework is validated for all applications. If the truth be told, by considering the secrecy of clinical information, a human services framework must satisfy propelled and get to control systems with exacting security and information quality necessities. Brilliant human services application framework is the most noteworthy applications for the doctor to screen the state of comparing patients remotely through WBAN, in light of IoT social insurance conditions. Nevertheless, for IoT conditions, the hugest trademark is the security and the protection of the framework, yet it is still inquiry-capable in different IoT models.

Novel authentication: The new confirmation and the key concur means convention for data security and privacy. It was critical to making sure about the correspondence channel, clinical sensors or gadgets, and the remote servers. To accomplish those prerequisites, the authors presented the confirmation and the key understanding expert tool, which was a lightweight asset compel sensor, and it is reasonable to secure delicate well-being- related information. In this way, the professionally presented framework gives progressively secure correspondence, ensured the touchy well-being- related information, and the gadgets are modest and little enough in size. Medical information is the most sensitive information, so to maintain the novel authentication is an essential requirement of IoT healthcare.

System privacy: The general framework security and secrecy are by and large interchangeable. The security speaks to the correct control access and it incorporates physical protection. The protection handles the individual in-arrangement through security standards, just as the secrecy obliges the medicinal services doctors to keep their patient’s inappropriate individual well-being data. When data are stored in the cloud, then the privacy became a very critical issue, and to maintain this challenge is a very big area of research. As the use of digital frameworks increases, the security flows are increased rapidly. In IoT healthcare system, privacy is a most supervised feature for gaining the trust of clients and makes this system serviceable. The overall function of IoT healthcare is defined in Figure 2.5.

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