The determination of principles around safeguard of resilient water landscape will improve the information and valorization around this enormous heritage. It is important to debate principles and a methodology that tourism and local communities could adopt and implement to protect water as a natural and cultural resource at risk.
The concern about the water heritage arises following the UNESCO (2011) recommendations for the historic urban landscape, that suggests the promotion of inventories of cultural and natural heritage in historic cities as a way to preserve and manage the urban landscape (Maniglios, 2017). Both documents insist on the landscape preservation, but do not refer water as the main natural and cultural resource that needs to take part of those debates. Those inventories are also important as a first step to validate the negative impacts, the causes, and promote strategic plans or decisions to keep way negative impacts. “The monitoring of hazardous events through change detection has an important role in emergency management. Such actions can be performed shortly after the hazardous event for first rapid mapping but also over longer periods of time for recovery purposes and risk mapping’’ (Cuca and Barazzetti, 2018).
Mapping and digitalization is the best way to preserve heritage (Di Stefano et al., 2016). Mapping the water is an unquestionable step for water conservation, especially in urban areas. “Mapping is a valuable tool in conservation efforts, as it may contribute to establish suitable heritage protection areas” (Martinez-Santos and Martinez-Alfaro, 2014). To map heritage, it is a way to promote knowledge about a thematic, in this case, the presence of the water in Guimaraes; and debate the possibility to the contemporary conservation and urban planning strategies to enrich, in this case, the heritage inside a city classified by UNESCO as World Heritage.
In fact, water is a cultural, natural, aesthetic, social, political, environmental element in urban places in constant risk related to climate change, the historical process of natural and cultural passage of time, and other human actions as disruptive urban development. The methodological proposal to improve the conservation and preservation of the water and the water heritage in urban places is inherent in the use of mapping methodology to achieve the heritage valorization and interpretation in a process of capacity building of all actors in urban places. Mapping associated with the evaluative and interpretative process that the visual use of water in Guimaraes history and capacity building is an important way to promote water conservation planning and management (Fig. 1.3). Following this model:
FIGURE 1.3 Conceptual framework.
Source: Authors’ own compilation.
In this study, the option was to map the fountains in use in three different periods of the history of Guimaraes:
- 1. The presence of the water in 15th Century, following the information of a historical map designed in 1569; Guimaraes map of 1569—National Library Foundation—Brazil. This map that portrays the city in the middle of the 16th century also refers to some points of water supply distributed around the urban perimeter. Although we have access to only nine sources of water, expressly mentioned on the map; through other sources we can conclude that there are some others, inside and outside the wall perimeter.
- 2. The presence of water in the city in 1706, following the historical work made by Antonio Carvalho da Costa, “Corografía Portugueza e Descriptjam Topográfica do Famoso Reyno de Portugal,” published in 1706, allows by the description of a travel itinerary denominated: The Sources, that Villa of Guimaraes has inside its walls, and in its Suburbs, to know the sources, tanks, and wells that existed in the beginning of the 18th century in Guimaraes (da Costa, 1706). It is an interesting picture that, in addition to identifying the places where the sources and wells were located, also gives us references on the water quality of the water fountains.
- 3. The 19th and 20th century was analyzed through the map of 1863 (plant of the city of Guimar aes, Manoeld’ Almeida Ribeiro, 1863),1 in combination with the articles published by Joao Gomes de
‘Access inhttps://archeevo.amap.pt/details?id=131117 (accessed Dec 21,2018).
Oliveira Guimaraes, the Abbot of Tagilde, in Revista de Guimaraes, referring the water supply in Guimaraes in Apontamentos para a Historia do Concelho de Guimaraes, from the beginning of the 20th cenmiy.