CONCLUDING REMARKS

Table of Contents:

From the studies reviewed, major research progress has been made in reproductive physiology and teclmology in swine. However, attempts to improve in vitro reproduction in pigs have not been enough. Lack of knowledge of many factors involved in in vitro sperm capacitation and fertilization and its regulation could contribute to the abnormally high incidence of polyspermy in this species. The use of simple in vitro systems of pre-treatment of gametes and IVF have been well demonstrated to be valid to analyze the complex processes of fertilization and evaluate several sperm, oocyte and embryo parameters. However, they suffer from serious limitation for the in vitro production of embryos due to fact that the available capacitation media produce a large percentage of capacitated spermatozoa that ready for fertilize at the same time. The direction in which we must advance is to allow oocytes to express their natural ability to block polyspermy, with more studies on the physiology of gametes, as well as with the development of new strategies for modulation of sperm capacita- tion. To do this, it would seem logical to first adjust the known parameters involved in in vitro sperm capacitation and fertilization processes that are far from their counterparts in vivo and that could firmly establish the basis of these techniques in the porcine species.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO), the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), Grants AGL2012-40180-C03-01-02 and AGL2015-66341-R) for the support and Dr. Lawrence Reynolds and Jordana Portugal Sena Lopes for their critical revision and assistance with the language.

KEYWORDS

  • porcine
  • spermatozoa
  • capacitation
  • bicarbonate
  • pH
  • oviductal fluid
  • in vitro fertilization

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