Model Uncertainties in Foundation Design

Geotechnical Engineering in the Era of Industry 4.0Industry 4.0: Force of ChangeState of Civil EngineeringReview of Geotechnical EngineeringHistory of Geotechnical EngineeringArt of Geotechnical EngineeringEvolution of Design and Risk ManagementTowards Digital TransformationRole of Geotechnical DataData Rich or Data Poor?Univariate/Multivariate Soil/Rock DatabasesGeotechnical Performance DatabasesCharacteristics of Geotechnical DataValue of Geotechnical DataScope and OrganizationReferencesEvaluation and Incorporation of Uncertainties in Geotechnical EngineeringSources of UncertaintyStatistical AnalysisData OutliersDescriptive and Inferential StatisticsFrequentist and Bayesian InferenceAleatory UncertaintyEpistemic UncertaintyModel UncertaintyModel FactorRemoval of Statistical DependencyLimitationsBivariate Correlated Model FactorsTransformation UncertaintyStatistical UncertaintyMeasurement ErrorIncorporation of Uncertainties in Geotechnical DesignOverviewReliability-Based DesignLimit State DesignReliability TheoryLoad and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) CalibrationGeneral PrincipleUltimate Limit State (ULS)Serviceability Limit State (SLS)ConclusionsReferencesBasics in Foundation EngineeringIntroductionTypes of FoundationsBasic Principles for Foundation DesignInformation Requirements and Foundation Design ProcessGeneral ConsiderationsFoundation Selection – the Five S’sPermissible Foundation MovementGuidelines on Limiting SettlementSite-Specific AssessmentDetermination of Bearing PressureTypes of Foundation Load TestsStatic Load Test (SLT)Head-Down Load TestBi-directional SLTRapid Load Test (RLT)Dynamic Load Test (DLT)Methods to Interpret SLTsInterpretation Methods for Compression TestsMovement LimitationGraphical ConstructionMathematical ModellingComparison of Interpretation MethodsEffect of ExtrapolationSummaryReferencesEvaluation of Design Methods for Shallow FoundationsType and Selection of Shallow FoundationsShallow Foundation TypeSelection and Application of Shallow FoundationsGeneral Considerations in Shallow Foundation DesignULS: Bearing CapacityFoundations under Axial CompressionModes of Bearing Capacity FailureCategory 2 Methods: Bearing Capacity TheoryGeneral FormulaFailure Envelope for Combined Loading of Shallow FoundationsFoundations under UpliftFailure MechanismsCalculation Methods for Uplift CapacityIEEE (2001) MethodMeyerhof and Adams (1968) MethodSLS: SettlementDatabases for Shallow FoundationsOverviewNUS/ShalFound/919Model Uncertainty in Shallow Foundation DesignBackgroundCapacity and Settlement Model FactorsCapacity Model StatisticsDependency of the Capacity Model Factor on Footing WidthSettlement Model StatisticsProbabilistic Models for Model Factors and Hyperbolic ParametersLRFD CalibrationULS Resistance FactorSLS Resistance FactorConclusionsReferencesEvaluation of Design Methods for Offshore Spudcans in Layered SoilIntroductionJack-Up Rig and Spudcan FoundationDifference between Conventional Shallow Foundation and SpudcanVertical Bearing Capacity of Spudcan in a Single LayerPenetration in ClayPenetration in Silica SandPunch-Through FailureCalculation of Punch-Through CapacitySand-Over-ClayCalculation Methods in ISO 19905-1:2016Load Spread ModelPunching Shear MethodInitial Stress-Dependent ModelsOkamura et al. (1998) MethodTeh (2007) MethodFailure Stress-Dependent ModelsLee et al. (2013b) MethodHu et al. (2014a) MethodUllah et al. (2017a) MethodIncorporation of Stress-Level EffectStiff-Over-Soft ClaysCalculation Method in ISO 19905-1:2016Calculation Methods in Zheng et al. (2016)Punch-Through Depth d pSemi-empirical MethodImproved ISO 19905-1:2016 MethodFoundation Punch-Through Centrifuge Test DatabasesShallow Foundations in Sand-Over-Clay: NUS/ShalFound/Punch-Through/31Spudcan in Layered Soil: NUS/Spudcan/Punch-Through/212Multi-layer Clays with SandSand-Over-ClayClay with SandMulti-layer ClaysStiff-Over-Soft ClaysMulti-layer ClaysModel Uncertainty in Punch-Through Capacity CalculationScatter Plot Analyses/. I Load Spread and Punching Shear ModelsOkamura et al.’s (1998) MethodUllah et al.’s (2017a) MethodVerification of the Multi-layer Soil ProfileDependency of the Model Factor on Input ParametersFurther Verification by Numerical AnalysesConclusionsReferencesEvaluation of Design Methods for Driven Piles and Drilled ShaftsDeep Foundation AlternativesDriven PilesDrilled ShaftsMicropilesContinuous Flight Auger (CFA) PilesScience and Empiricism in Pile DesignBasic Load-Movement BehaviourEnhanced Understanding of Displacement Pile BehaviourI Complex Soil Stress-Strain HistoryTime Dependency of Pile Capacity (Setup)Residual LoadCritical DepthPlugging of Open Pile SectionsDirection of LoadingRock-Socket BehaviourStatic Analysis Methods for Pile Axial CapacityBasic ApproachCategory 1 MethodsEmpirical Correlations with SPT and CPT DataEmpirical Correlations with Rock StrengthPile Driving FormulasCategory 2 Methods Total Stress AnalysisEffective Stress Analysisλ-MethodSettlement of Single Pile FoundationsCategory 1 Methods: Empirical CorrelationsCategory 2 Methods: Elasticity-Based ApproachesCategory 3 Methods: Non-linear Load-Transfer CurvesDeep Foundation Load Test DatabasesOverview of Pile Load Test DatabasesIntegrated Pile Load Test DatabasesIdentification of Geomaterial TypeDetermination of Pile Axial Capacity from SLTModel Uncertainty Assessment and Consideration in Pile DesignBackgroundStatistics of Capacity Model FactorDriven PileLarge Diameter Open-Ended Pile (LDOEP)Drilled ShaftLateral Loaded Drilled ShaftRock SocketShaft Shearing ResistanceEnd Bearing ResistanceStatistics of Settlement Model FactorParameterization of Continuous Load-Movement CurvesLRFD CalibrationConclusionsReferencesEvaluation of Design Methods for Helical PilesIntroductionBackgroundHistorical and Modern Applications of Helical PilesInstallationEquipmentGeneral ProceduresIndustry Survey and Evolution of Design GuidelinesResults of Industry SurveyEvolution of Design GuidelinesState of Understanding of Helical Pile BehaviourOur Current Understanding – “What We Know”Failure Mechanism – Cylindrical Shear or Individual Plate Bearing?Shallow or Deep Failure under UpliftInstallation Disturbance Effect on Soil PropertiesContribution and Efficiency of Helix to Gross CapacityAreas Needing More Work – “What We Don’t Know”Calculation Methods for Axial CapacityGeneralCylindrical Shear MethodIndividual Bearing MethodCategory 1 MethodsI Empirical Capacity-to-Torque CorrelationEmpirical Correlations with In Situ Test DataCategory 2 MethodsHelix CapacityShearing Resistances along Pile Shaft and Soil CylinderAxially Loaded Helical Pile Load Test DatabaseCompilation of Database – NUS/HelicalPile/1113CTL|Thompson DataEBS-AFC-HPA DataReference DataInterpretation of Axial CapacityModel Uncertainty Assessment and Consideration in Helical Pile DesignEvaluation of Capacity Model FactorParameterization of Continuous Load-Movement CurvesApplication of Model Statistics for Reliability CalibrationConclusionsReferencesGeneric Foundation Load Test DatabaseModel Factor Statistics for Other GeostructuresResistance of Reinforced Soil StructuresEmbedment Depth of Cantilever Retaining WallsFS for Slope and Basal Heave StabilityWall and Ground MovementRevision of the JCSS Probabilistic Model Code and ClassificationChallenges and Concluding RemarksChallengesTechnological Innovations in Geotechnical PracticeConcluding RemarksReferencesAppendix: Data Availability StatementReferences
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