Application of marine bacteria and fungi

The major portion of the earth is surrounded by marine environment and it is a chest of pharmacology (Yang et al. 2018). Hypothetically, life evolved from marine environment (Saurav et al. 2012). The life form survival is the most competitive in marine ecosystem (Magarvey et al. 2004). Mamie microbes are the dominant life forms in oceans. There are approximately ten million microbes in every drop of surface seawrater including genetically diverse bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists, as well as viruses (Rashad et al. 2015). Among the microbes, bacteria are omnipresent, harmful, commensal and opportunistic. Life would be (nearly)

S. NO.

Name of the enzymes

Microorganisms bacteria/fungi

Applications in various industries

References

1

Biosurfactant

Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus amyloliquefacieus and Serratia marcescens

They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in food industry, as formulations in cosmetic industry, as biocontrol agents in agriculture or in biodegradation and bioremediation in environmental protection system.

Cintia et al. 2019

2

Biosurfactant

Rhizopus arrhizus and Fusarium fujikuroi.

It is used as stabilizer in food industry

Morena et al 2016

3

Anti-oxidant activity

Marinobacter sp., Bacillus sp and L. delbrueckii

They are used for the production of antioxidant compound and have scavenging DPPH free radicals which prove its potential to be applied in food, cosmetics and oil industries as safe, natural and biodegradable.

Milagre et al. 2019

4

Anti-oxidant activity

Aspergillus oryzae and Glomus genus

They are used for the degradation process of DPPH.

Wurong etal. 2017

5

Anti-microbial

activity

Bacillus sp.

Anti-microbial activity against food pathogens.

Morena et al. 2016

6

Anti-microbial

activity

Cephalosporium and Fusarium solani

They have the anti-microbial ability against Gram negative bacteria.

Fadluleetal. 2017

7

Anti-fungal

Cladospoiium delicatulum

They inhibit the various fungal strains due to the production of fungal metabolites.

Nadia et al. 201S

S

Biological activity

Streptomyces sp. and Nocardiopsis sp.

They have excellent biological activity components including antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-viral activity.

Ramachandran et al. 2019, Rajivgandhi etal. 2018

impossible without bacteria in the oceans (Held et al. 2019). So far, the discovery of bacteria and their novel evolutionary metabolic descendant isolated from marine environment is estimated ~ 10% (Magarvey et al. 2004). In this current scenario, the need for research, and focus on the novel source of organism followed by then biopotential estimation are the primary concents.

Among the marine microbe, actinomycetes are Gram positive filamentous bacteria with branched morphology, aerobic and unicellular with high percentage of G=C (70%) in their genetic stmcture. ~ 70% of the available antibiotics have been derived from these excellent secondary metabolites producer (Ramaclmdran et al. 2019). Actinomycetes associated with marine plant have been explored by many research groups worldwide (Matsumot et al. 2017). In recent decades, the taxonomic evolution of endophytic actinomycetes has emerged from marine rather than terrestrial nature (Fan et al. 2018, Dinesh et al. 2017). Among the microbial community, actinomycetes is the supreme secondary metabolites producer (Kennmg et al. 2018). They are characteristic producers of growth promoting factors, hormones and potential antimicrobial components (Masand et al. 2015).

The excessive usage of antibiotics leads to development of multi drug resistant bacteria. On other hand, it leads to discovery of novel compounds of antibiotics from new sources such and marine microorganisms (Subramani et al. 2012, Ramaclmdran et al. 2018). Encouragingly, the rare group of actinobacteria, as non-Streptoviyces or newl Streptoviyces found in endophytic nature has already helped in the discovery of novel antimicrobials with unique chemical moieties, confirming that microbial natural products are still a promising source for drug discovery (Jose et al. 2016). The important role of marine actinomycetes against all the fields are exhibited in Fig. 3

To date, no comprehensive investigation has been performed on the cultural diversity of the actinobacteria associated with marine sources. Some attempt has been made to discover new taxa and their potential novel metabolites from endophytic actinobacteria with potential antibacterial and anticancer properties that play a role in controlled drug delivery. For example, non-Streptomyces genera such as Micromonospora, Nocardiapsis, Actinomadiira, Actinoplanes, Streptoverticilllititn

Application of marine actinomycetes in various fields

Fig. 3. Application of marine actinomycetes in various fields.

and Saccharopolyspora have been found to produce chemically unique antibiotics featuring potent biomedical activities such as abyssomicins, Pyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1.4-dioue, hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl), 1,4-diaza-2,5-dioxo-3-isobutyl bicyclo[4.3.0]nonane, rebeccamycin, macrotermycins, proximicins, and gerumycin, respectively (Li et al. 2017, Rajivgandhi et al. 2018).

Application of microorganisms in nanoparticle synthesis

Currently, nanotechnology is an emerging field that deals with nanosized materials (Xiaojia et al. 2019). The potential benefits of nanotechnology are widely recognized in all the fields including soil, agr iculture, food, pharmaceutical, biology, physics and chemistry (Fig. 4). The building blocks of nanotechnology are nanoparticles, which are exhibited at various ranges between 1-100 nm (Tohren et al. 2019). Among the bulk materials, the tiny size and high surface area are totally different, hi addition, nanoparticles and bulk materials also differ from each other due to the physical strength, reactivity, electrical conductivity, optical feature and magnetism. These nanoparticles are used in all the fields including energy, pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics, textiles, food and agriculture. In the recent years, the nanoparticle research has concentrated on all the fields, particularly creating the revolution of agriculture, food and health sectors with the application of biosensors, plant growth promoters, food ingredients, drug delivery, pesticides and fertilizers (Mohamed et al. 2016). The synthesis of nauoparticles derives from chemical, physical and biological route. Compared to biological methods, physical and chemical methods are more toxic to all the fields including agriculture, food and health (Niladri et al. 2018). Therefore, synthesis of nauoparticle from biological route has exhibited excellent polydispersity, dimension as well as stability. The biological synthesis of nanoparticle using pH, temperature and pressure are cost effective and ecofriendly. Due to this reason, synthesis of nanoparticle from biological route especially microorganism is very important (He et al. 2019).

Worldwide, plant and microbes are exploited for synthesis of nanoparticles (Mohamed et al. 2016). Among the various microbes, bacteria, fungi and yeast are

Application of biosyntliesized nanoparticles in various fields

Fig. 4. Application of biosyntliesized nanoparticles in various fields.

the most predominant microbes chosen for synthesis of nanoparticles due to the high growth rate, easy cultivation and their ability to grow in ambient atmosphere of temperature, pH and pressure. Based on the adaptability, microbial nanoparticles are synthesized by intracellular and extracellular route due to the enzymatic activities.

Among these, bacteria are an excellent nanoparticle producer due to the metal ion reduction. In the recent years, the synthesis of nanoparticles is concentrated on bacteria mediated interactive pathways responsible for metal ion reduction and their ability to precipitate metals on nanometer level (Tohren et al. 2019). Microorganisms are popular for nanoparticle synthesis due to ease of handling, minute size, diverse shape and less growth time. It exhibits low toxicity. On the other side, fungi are also one of the important microbes for nauoparticle synthesis. The fungi have various intracellular and extracellular enzymes in their nature, which are used for the synthesis of nanoparticles. It has been found that nanoparticles synthesized from fungi are mostly mono dispersed with well characterized size and shape, and also have different chemical compositions.

Here, important bacteria and fungi are Actinobacteria, Bacillus sp„ Pseudomonas sp„ Klebsiella sp„ Salmonella typhi and Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium leuteoalbum, Collitotrichum sp., Alternaria alternate and Trichoderma viridea, respectively, with some anti-bacteria and anti-cancer mechanisms (Niladri et al. 2018, Tohren et al. 2019). The other bacteria and fungi with then biological activities are also listed in Table 6.

Application of biosynthesized nanoparticles in soil

Nanoparticle is an excellent tool in agriculture in the form of nanofertilizer, nanopesticide, nanosensor which reported better result in sustainable agricultural practices (Nacide et al. 2019). Different nanoparticles are used in soil in laboratory and green house model (Table 5). Commercially available product of the nauoparticles is also available for using in the soil field (Rajendran et al. 2018). Tire commercially prepared nanoparticle for soil products are Nano-Gro™, Nano-AgAnswer®, Biozar Nanofertilizer. Nano Max NPK Fertilizer, Master Nano Chitosan Organic Fertilizer and TAG NANO; they are developed as plant growth regulator and inununity inducer, plant nutrition, NPK Fertilizer and Nano-Gro™ from respective countries of India, USAand Iran (Parada et al. 2019, Ralstonia solanaceamm et al. 2019, James et al. 2017).

Application of biosynthesized nanoparticles in aquaculture

Tire excessive use of the antibiotics is a major reason to combat the bacterial infections. However, unregulated and unprescribed format of the antibiotics can also lead to emergence of bacterial resistance which is no longer effective on antibiotics (Arabinda et al. 2013). In mobile genome of both terrestrial and aquatic bacteria, elements have the resistant genes that can be exchanged between them with important impacts on livestock and human health. Importantly, tetracycline is the most frequently itsed antibiotic in fish forms for inhibiting the development of resistant genes in fish (Chaudrau et al. 2016). However, some bacteria are developed

Table 5. Importance of biosynthesized nanoparticles in soil.

s.

NO.

Role

Microorganisms

bacteria/fungi

Applications

References

1

Biofertihzers

Bacillus+Zvac

It is used to unprove the soil fertility.

Tohren et al. 2019

2

Phytoremediation

Srreptomyces

sp.+Silver

It has phytotoxic effects and reduces the root and shoot biomass in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

Xiaojia et al 2019

3

Phytoremediation

Actinomycetes+Gold

Increases the Cinnamomum zeylanicum for mhibitmg the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae.

James et al. 2017

4

Sunulator

Aspeigillus+Coppei:

It increases the enzyme mhibition m soil bacteria

Parada et al. 2019

5

Crop

improvement

Ciptococais+Cu- FAU nanozeolites

It is used to remove the ESKAPE pathogens.

Rajendrau et al. 2018

to resist all kind of antibiotics including tetracycline. Particularly, Aeromonas hydmphila is the major organism that is resistant to broad spectrum antibiotics such as tetracycline, streptomycin and erythromycin. It produces skin ulceration, tail or fin rot and fatal hemorrhagic septicemia in fish. It commonly infects caip, gold-fish and silver catfish, leading to more economic losses in aquaculture (Eduardo et al. 2014). In addition, some of the microbes frequently create problems in fish forms including Aeromonas salmonicida, Photobacterium damselae, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio, Listeria, Pseudomonas and Edwardsiella (Mohamed et al. 2016).

For decreasing the antimicrobial resistant effect of fish pathogens, development of a potential alternative compound to replace the use of antimicrobials is the major concern. In this context, nauoparticle mediated drug delivery system in fish production form is an excellent alternative to fish pathogens. It has been developed to prolong and optimize drug administration and decrease the toxicity in fish form.

Application of biosynthesized nanoparticles in food industry

The food is our life partner to modem consumer, it led to increase in the demand for ready to eat or minimally processed foods. The consumer demand is for safe, fresh, healthy and shelf stable, convenient food using environmentally friendly methods (Niladri et al. 2018). Food is easily contaminated by microorganisms during the process and distribution including peeling, cutting and washing. If it is not handled properly, it could affect the public health. While handing and distribution of the food, continuous maintenance of desired temperanire is sometimes difficult. The microbial contamination has led to the increase in various infections and poor nutrition associated with weaning foods. Sometimes, most of the food pathogens develop resistance against almost all the antibiotics that can lead to severe infections to healthy individuals. Prevention of resistant pathogens in food is the most important concern worldwide (He et al. 2019).

Nanotechnology in food is an emerging field and also new compared to the biomedical application. In food industry, it is frequently used during then cultivation, production, processing and food packaging (Thea et al. 2018). The use of solid based nanoparticles (NPs) has advantages over liquid based NPs due to the control release kinetics, nanoemulsions and coated products. These solid based NPS also have advantages over new techniques including nanosendors, tracking devices, targeted delivery, food safety and smart packaging (Khorasani et al. 2018).

Application of biosynthesized nanoparticles in pharmaceutical industry

The synthesis of nauoparticles from microbes exhibits several hypotheses. Particularly, silver, gold, zinc and copper are the most extensively studied nanoparticles in the pharmaceutical industry (Manjunath et al. 2019). In antimicrobial activity, silver nauoparticles release ionic silver via breakdown that inactivates the bacterial enzyme production by interacting with essential -SH groups. The released Ag ions is an active inhibitor for bacterial DNA replication, cytoplasmic membrane, lacking of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and biofilm (Gharieb et al. 2018). Instead of silver, the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are the most biocompatible and biodegradable. Nanoparticles are used in various biological applications, and can be used in photochemical and chemical modification by bioengineered method. It is also classified into different categories such as gold nano-cages, nanospheres, nano-needles, and nauorods. Likewise, zinc, copper, graphene and various other nanoparticles also have great potential against various biomedical applications (Table 6).

Table 6. Importance of biosynthesized nauoparticles in biomedical application.

S. NO.

Role

Microorganisms bacteria/ fungi

Applications

References

1

Antimicrobial

activity

Thermomonospora sp.+Silver

Antimicrobial activity against urinary tract mfections.

Hulkoti et al. 2014

2

Anti-microbial

activity

PeniciUium chrysogenum+Ziac

Antimicrobial activity against multi drug resistant bacteria.

Mohamed et al. 2016

3

Antioxidant

Cladosporium cladosporioides

It lias more anti-oxidant activity.

Ghaneb et al. 2018

4

Anti-cancer

Cladosporium cladosporioides

It lias anti-candidal activity'.

Maujunatli et al. 2019

5

Anti-malarial

Callistemon citntws-Gold

It lias anti-malarial activity'.

Thea et al. 2018

 
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