Microbial Fermentation and Enzyme Technology

IntroductionBasic Principle of FermentationBiochemical Process of FermentationFermentation Methodology in Terms of Enzyme ProductionFactors Influencing Fermentation and EnzymesFermentation and Its Industrial Applications in Enzyme ScienceConcluding Remarks and Future TrendsConclusionREFERENCESα-Amylases: An Overview on Molecular Structure and Biotechnological PerspectivesIntroductionHistory of AmylaseFamily of Amylases and Their ClassificationProduction and Purification of AmylasePhysicochemical Properties of a-AmylasesMolecular MassEffect of pHEffect of Temperature and Thermostability of a-AmylasesEffect of Metal IonsInhibitorsMolecular Structure of a-AmylasesTopology of a-AmylasesMechanism of Action of a-AmylaseAlpha-Amylase EngineeringApplication of a-AmylasesLiquefaction of StarchApplications in Food IndustryRemoval of Starch Sizer from Textile (Desizing)Fermentation of Starch to Ethanol for Production of BiofuelTreatment of Starch Processing Waste Water (SPW)Preparation of Starch Hydrolysate as Sizer of PaperUse in Detergent PreparationClinical ApplicationsFuture PerspectivesREFERENCESStudy of α-Amylase Based on their Compositional Parameters of Its Gene Along with Its Protein StructureIntroductionClassification of AmylasesSources of a-AmylaseUses of a-AmylaseMaterials and MethodsCollection of DataEvolutionary AnalysisDetection of Conserved DomainsCompositional Analysis and Codon Usage IndicesStatistical Significance TestStructural AnalysisResult and DiscussionEvolutionary Analysis and Conserved Domain PatternGenomic Composition AnalysisCodon Biasness and UsageAmino Acid Composition of a-AmylaseStructure of a-AmylaseConclusionREFERENCESMicrobial Enzymes in Food Industry: Types and ApplicationsIntroductionTypes of Microbial Enzymes in Food Industrya-Amylasep-AmylaseCellulasePectinasesInvertaseProteasesEnzymes from Acute ConditionsRole of Cold-Active EnzymesNano-coated Enzymes in Food IndustryApplications in Food IndustryFood Manufacturing through EnzymesUses of Microbial Enzymes in Dairy and Baking IndustryConclusionREFERENCESFermented Foods for Health: Processes and ProspectsIntroductionFermentationBiochemistry of FermentationTypes of Fermented FoodGlobal Scenario of Fermented FoodFermented Food in Health and NutritionConclusionsREFERENCESAdvances in Enzymatic Applications in Food IndustryIntroductionTypes and Applications of Enzymes in Food IndustryBlanching EffectivenessRole in Improvement of Sensorial PropertiesEnzyme Uses for Textural ImprovementEnzyme Use for Shelf-Life Enhancement of FoodstuffsEnzyme Use to Clarify Juices in the Beverage IndustryRole in Increasing Food SafetyRole in Milk and Cheese CoagulationMiscellaneous Bioprocess ApplicationsEnzymes from Microbial Biosynthesis as Biocatalysts for Food IndustryFinal Remarks with Future PerspectivesREFERENCESRole of Enzymes in Development of Functional Foods and Food ProductsIntroductionUtilization of Food Enzymes in Functional Food DevelopmentFats and Oils ModificationCereal Products ModificationMeat Products ModificationDairy Products ModificationsMarine Products ModificationEnzyme-Assisted Extraction of Functional Dietary PhytochemicalsApplication of Enzymatic Treatment on Bioactive Proteins and PeptidesBioactivity of Proteins and PeptidesBioactive Peptides ModificationEnzyme-Assisted Extraction of Proteins and PeptidesFinal Remarks with Future PerspectivesREFERENCESApplication of Immobilized Cells and Enzymes in the Food IndustryIntroductionImmobilization TechniquesBioreactors Used for Immobilized SystemsProperties of Immobilized Cells and EnzymesImmobilized Cells in Food IndustryWinemaking and BrewingDairy Products and ProbioticsVinegar ProductionEnzyme Production with Immobilized CellsImmobilized Enzymes in the Food IndustryStarch Industry and Production of SweetenersProduction of PrebioticsImmobilized Enzymes in the Production of BeveragesConclusionACKNOWLEDGEMENTREFERENCESDextransucrase: A Microbial Enzyme with Wide Industrial ApplicationsIntroductionSources of DextransucraseReaction Mechanism of DextransucraseProduction of DextransucrasePurification and Characterization of DextransucraseStrain Development for Enhanced Production of DextransucraseIndustrial Application of Dextransucrase Produced from Different Lactic Acid BacteriaSynthesis and Application of DextranApplication of Dextran in Baking IndustryDextran as Emulsifying AgentGeneration of Prebiotic OligosaccharideApplication in Dairy IndustryPotential Biomedical ApplicationsApplication in Agro IndustryConclusions and Future ProspectsACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND CONFLICT OF INTERESTREFERENCESTrends in Biosensors and Role of Enzymes as Their Sensing Element for Healthcare ApplicationsIntroductionClassification of BiosensorsClassification of Biosensors Based on Transduction Process (Figure 10.2)Classification Based on Bioreceptor TypeRole of Enzymes in BiosensorsEnzymes as Label ElementsEnzyme ImmobilizationAdsorptionCovalent Bonding and CrosslinkingEntrapmentEncapsulationGeneration of Biosensors and Its Relevance to Enzyme-Based Glucose BiosensorFirst-Generation BiosensorsSecond-Generation BiosensorsThird-Generation BiosensorsTransducers Used in Different BiosensorsMaterials Used in TransducersConclusionACKNOWLEDGEMENTREFERENCESApplication of Bile Salt Hydrolase Enzyme in Cholesterol LoweringIntroductionCholesterol Metabolism in the BodyBile Salt Hydrolysis (BSH) Enzyme and Mechanism of Action of BSHStudies on BSH-Active Probiotic StrainsCloning of BSH GenesConclusionREFERENCESFermentative and Enzyme-Assisted Production of Phenolic Antioxidants from Plant ResiduesIntroductionMain Groups of Plant PhenolicsPhenolic AcidsFlavonoidsStilbenesTanninsFruit and Vegetable Processing By-productsSubstrate PretreatmentAdvantages of SSF in the Production and Recovery of BiomoleculesFungal SSF for Phenolics MobilizationFungal SmF for Phenolics ProductionMobilization of Phenolics through Enzymatic TreatmentConclusionsACKNOWLEDGEMENTSREFERENCESRelevance of Microbial Enzymes in Textile Industries Emphasizing Metabolic Engineering PanoramaIntroductionPretreatment and Polishing Approaches in Textile IndustriesApplication of Novel Enzymes in Textile Industries through Redesigning and Bioengineering ApproachesFuture Outlook with a Special Emphasis on Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic BiologyREFERENCESMicrobial Degradation of Organophosphate Pesticides: A ReviewIntroductionOrganophosphate Pesticides and Their DegradationPesticide-Degrading BacteriaMechanisms of Pesticide DegradationMajor Modes and Pathways for Microbial Degradation of Organophosphate PesticidesEnzymatic Degradation (Enzymatic Hydrolysis)Silica Nanoparticle-Based Systems for the Degradation of PesticidesEstablished and Existing Methods for Detection of PesticidesDetection of Pesticides by Chromatographic TechniquesImmunological Assays for the Detection of Organophosphorus CompoundsBiosensors-Based Detection MethodsFluorescence-Based Detection MethodsColorimetric/Visual/On-Site Detection of Pesticides with Metal NanoparticlesConclusionREFERENCESMicrobial Production of Xylitol: A Cost-Effective ApproachIntroductionApproaches in Xylitol ProductionChemical MethodBiotechnological MethodMicrobial Xylitol ProductionFermentation StrategiesMetabolic PathwaysFactors Affecting Xylitol ProductionXylitol Production from LignocellulosesStrategies to Improve Xylitol ProductionImmobilization of Whole CellsStrain Improvement through Recombinant TechnologyXylitol RecoveryXylitol ApplicationsConclusions and Future ProspectsREFERENCESEnzymes: Key Role in the Conversion of Waste to BioethanolIntroductionWaste and Its ProcessingEnzymes Involved in SaccharificationCellulasesHemicellulasesPectinolytic EnzymesBiofuelsConclusionREFERENCESMicrobial Laccase: A Vanguard Biocatalyst and Its Potentiality towards Industrial ApplicationsIntroductionMolecular Mechanism of Laccase FunctionPotential Industrial and Biotechnological Applications of Laccase EnzymeFood Processing IndustryBeer StabilizationFruit Juice ClarificationBakery ProductsWine StabilizationSugar Beet Pectin GelationDelignification of LignocellulosicsBiopulping and Bio-bleachingTextile IndustryBioremediation and BiodegradationNanobiotechnology and BiosensorsOther ApplicationsConclusionACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND CONFLICT OF INTERESTREFERENCESBiofuel Cellulases: Diversity, Distribution and Industrial OutlookIntroductionBiofuel Cellulases: A Brief DescriptionEndoglucanases or EG (EC or CBH or Exo-l,4-p-glucanases (EC or |3-glucosidases / or BG (EC in Microbial CellulasesThe Molecular Structure of Cellulases and Mechanistic ActionInverting MechanismRetaining MechanismDesignation and Distribution of Cellulases in Glycoside-Hydrolase (GH) FamiliesCBHICBHIIEGBGCellulase Market and Global PlayersA Decade’s Overview on Biofuel Cellulase IndustryConcluding RemarksREFERENCESEnzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Engineered Microorganisms and In Silico Approaches for Enhanced Enzyme Production: A ReviewIntroductionHydrolytic Enzymes for Lignocellulosic BiomassCellulaseP-glucosidaseEndo-p-1,4-xylanaseEndo-p-1,4-mannanasep-mannosidaseAcetyl Xylan Esterasea-glucuronidasea-arabinofuranosidasea-galactosidasep-1,4-XylosidasePolymethylgalacturonaseEndopolygalacturonaseExopolygalacturonaseExopolygalacturanosidaseStrategies for Improvement in Microorganisms for Enhanced Enzyme ProductionIn Silico Approaches towards the Improvement of Biofuel ProductionAlignment of SequenceHomology Modelling of EnzymesMolecular Docking of Cellulase and Xylanase with Different SubstratesUse of MD Simulation in Studying Protein DynamicsConformations Sampling of Cellulosome DomainsDesign of Hydrophobic PocketConstruction of Salt Bridge for Enzyme EngineeringREFERENCESAgrowaste to Ethanol: Orchestrated by Enzymes from MicrobesIntroductionTypes of Feedstocks and Microorganisms Used in Biofuel ProductionStrawCorn StoverMunicipal Solid WasteForestry Woody Feed StockOverview of Microbial Ethanol Production from Agricultural WastePretreatment of Agronomical WasteHydrolysis of Cellulose and HemicellulosesFermentation of Sugar to EthanolConclusionREFERENCES
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