Nano-coated Enzymes in Food Industry

The characteristic of any desirable enzyme and its potential applications has been hindered due to absence of their enduring stability, shelf life, recovery and reusability and immobilizing of enzymes has been the main strategy to overcome these problems. Nanoparticles have been used for the immobilization of enzymes and dispersed in the food matrices to increase their activity (Bai et al. 2006). Nanocharcoal adsorbent has

Types of enzyme immobilization

FIGURE 4.2 Types of enzyme immobilization.

been the main example of immobilized enzyme as it has been used for the decolonization of food products (Augustin and Hemar 2009). Figure 4.2 demonstrates the types of enzyme immobilization and their advantages.

Brady and Jordaan (2009) proved that the action of invertase enzyme didn’t hinder after the adsorbtion on any dense material like aluminium hydroxide or charcoal to synthesize the nanomaterials. Nanoparticles have played a very efficient role in the enzyme immobilization as they have been the key factors for the determination of biocatalyst efficiency, enzyme loading capability, specific surface area and mass transfer resistance (Feng and Ji 2011; Gupta et al. 2011; Verma et al. 2013). Gradually, the uses of immobilized enzymes have been increased in the food industry. The starch has been manufactured for the sweetness improvement with the help of immobilized enzymes as they partially converted the fructose into the gluconate. Figure 4.3 shows the various enzymes with their uses in food industry.

Various enzymes with their applications in food industry

FIGURE 4.3 Various enzymes with their applications in food industry.

Applications in Food Industry

Most enzymes in the food industry have been utilized for the processing of foods, i.e. breakdown and modifications of biomaterials. Lipases have been applied in the dairy industry for the development of flavour as well as in the processing of beer, vegetables, baked foods, meat and fruits commercially (Aravindan et al. 2007). In the dairy industry, lipases obtained from A. oryzae, A. niger and M. miehei have been used for the modifications in length of the fatty acid chains for the flavour enhancement of cheese. Some other microbial enzymes have also been used in the food industry and are listed in Table 4.1.

Food Manufacturing through Enzymes

Nowadays, microbes have been the most important sources of the commercial enzymes. Mostly used pectinase enzyme in beverages and food industries has been produced by all of the microbes including fungi and bacteria. Pectinases and other enzymes have been widely applied in the various industries such as fruit ripening, tea and chocolate fermentation, viscosity clarification, vegetable wastes treatment, etc. (Almeida et al. 2005; Da-Silva et al. 2005). Some lipolytic enzymes like esterase and lipase have been used in the degradation of lipids (Jaeger and Reetz 1998).

Cellulase has also been used for the specific compound extraction from the essential oils, aromatic products, soy protein, green tea and sweet potato starch in the food industry. Cellulase in addition with hemi-cellulase and pectinase were applied for the abstraction of fruit juices and their clarification (Pretel 1997). Amylase has been producing as an industrial enzyme since last century. It has been applicable for the diverse purposes such as in the newborn feeding cereals, bakery, starch liquefaction and scarification, liquor and animal feedstuff industries (Pandey et al. 1999; Soccol and Vandenberghe 2003). Protease has been an important enzyme in the meat tender- ization, baking, cheese manufacture, brewing and several oriental foods production industries. Different enzymes of microbial sources and their uses with functions are demonstrated in Table 4.2.


Important Enzymes and Their Microbial Sources




Aspergillus sp.


Baking, brewing

Bacillus sp.



Trichoderma sp.


Paper and pulp industry

Bacillus sp.

Glucose isomerase

Isomerization of glucose

Pseudomonas sp.


Baking and fat industry

Aspergillus sp.


Clarification of fruit juice

Aspergillus and Bacillus sp.


Baking, brewing and meat tenderization

Source: Afroz, Q.M. et al., Int. J. Appl. Res., 1,523-527, 2015.


Microbial Enzymes and Their Utilities in Food Industry






Processing of cheese


Reduction of lactose in milk



Bread softening of bread and adjustment of flour


Conditioning and stability of dough


a-amylase and (3-amylase

Hydrolysis of starch


Liquefaction of fruits


Restrict the formation of haze

Source: Singh, R. et al., 2 Biotech., 6, 174, 2016.

Uses of Microbial Enzymes in Dairy and Baking Industry

Protease, esterase, lipase, catalase, lactase and other microbial enzymes have demonstrated wide range of applications in the field of dairy industry. In the first stage of cheese manufacturing, rennet or rennin has been used and functioned as milk coagulant. Protease has been used in the process of cheese ripening and modification of milk proteins for the reduction in allergens in cow milk products. Lipase has also been used in the ripening of cheese to improve the lipolytic flavours. To improve the dairy products sweetness and solubility, lactase has been used. Peptidase maintained the traditional flavour of cheese by breakage of bitter peptides (Afroz et al. 2015).

In baking industry, amylase has been exclusively used for the cake production, preparation of starch syrups, fruit juices and digestive aids (Couto and Sanroman 2006). Amylase is generally used in the fermentation of flour as it degrades the starch in the bread production. It has also enhanced the toasting qualities, taste and crust colour of the bread with additional sweetness (Gupta et al. 2003). Xylanase and lipase have been used for the improvement in shelf life of bread in bread production industry (Andreu et al. 1999; Butt et al. 2008).


In the advance research, biotechnology emerged as a necessary tool to handle the microbes. These microbes have been there on earth for millions of years and have great importance in the food processing. Enzymes from these microbial sources have immense potential in food, beverages, leather processing, feedstuff, pulp and paper industries. These enzymes have not only enhanced the quality, nutrition and shelf life of food products but also have been used in the different industries as medical and pharmaceutical industry. In conclusion, new development in metabolic engineering of microbes could lead to the new and effective enzyme schemes that may apply in food industry to make it more organic, sustainable and environment friendly.


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