Nano-coated Enzymes in Food Industry

The characteristic of any desirable enzyme and its potential applications has been hindered due to absence of their enduring stability, shelf life, recovery and reusability and immobilizing of enzymes has been the main strategy to overcome these problems. Nanoparticles have been used for the immobilization of enzymes and dispersed in the food matrices to increase their activity (Bai et al. 2006). Nanocharcoal adsorbent has

Types of enzyme immobilization

FIGURE 4.2 Types of enzyme immobilization.

been the main example of immobilized enzyme as it has been used for the decolonization of food products (Augustin and Hemar 2009). Figure 4.2 demonstrates the types of enzyme immobilization and their advantages.

Brady and Jordaan (2009) proved that the action of invertase enzyme didn’t hinder after the adsorbtion on any dense material like aluminium hydroxide or charcoal to synthesize the nanomaterials. Nanoparticles have played a very efficient role in the enzyme immobilization as they have been the key factors for the determination of biocatalyst efficiency, enzyme loading capability, specific surface area and mass transfer resistance (Feng and Ji 2011; Gupta et al. 2011; Verma et al. 2013). Gradually, the uses of immobilized enzymes have been increased in the food industry. The starch has been manufactured for the sweetness improvement with the help of immobilized enzymes as they partially converted the fructose into the gluconate. Figure 4.3 shows the various enzymes with their uses in food industry.

Various enzymes with their applications in food industry

FIGURE 4.3 Various enzymes with their applications in food industry.

Applications in Food Industry

Most enzymes in the food industry have been utilized for the processing of foods, i.e. breakdown and modifications of biomaterials. Lipases have been applied in the dairy industry for the development of flavour as well as in the processing of beer, vegetables, baked foods, meat and fruits commercially (Aravindan et al. 2007). In the dairy industry, lipases obtained from A. oryzae, A. niger and M. miehei have been used for the modifications in length of the fatty acid chains for the flavour enhancement of cheese. Some other microbial enzymes have also been used in the food industry and are listed in Table 4.1.

Food Manufacturing through Enzymes

Nowadays, microbes have been the most important sources of the commercial enzymes. Mostly used pectinase enzyme in beverages and food industries has been produced by all of the microbes including fungi and bacteria. Pectinases and other enzymes have been widely applied in the various industries such as fruit ripening, tea and chocolate fermentation, viscosity clarification, vegetable wastes treatment, etc. (Almeida et al. 2005; Da-Silva et al. 2005). Some lipolytic enzymes like esterase and lipase have been used in the degradation of lipids (Jaeger and Reetz 1998).

Cellulase has also been used for the specific compound extraction from the essential oils, aromatic products, soy protein, green tea and sweet potato starch in the food industry. Cellulase in addition with hemi-cellulase and pectinase were applied for the abstraction of fruit juices and their clarification (Pretel 1997). Amylase has been producing as an industrial enzyme since last century. It has been applicable for the diverse purposes such as in the newborn feeding cereals, bakery, starch liquefaction and scarification, liquor and animal feedstuff industries (Pandey et al. 1999; Soccol and Vandenberghe 2003). Protease has been an important enzyme in the meat tender- ization, baking, cheese manufacture, brewing and several oriental foods production industries. Different enzymes of microbial sources and their uses with functions are demonstrated in Table 4.2.

TABLE 4.1

Important Enzymes and Their Microbial Sources

Sources

Enzymes

Applications

Aspergillus sp.

Amylases

Baking, brewing

Bacillus sp.

(3-glucanases

Brewing

Trichoderma sp.

Cellulases

Paper and pulp industry

Bacillus sp.

Glucose isomerase

Isomerization of glucose

Pseudomonas sp.

Lipases

Baking and fat industry

Aspergillus sp.

Pectinases

Clarification of fruit juice

Aspergillus and Bacillus sp.

Proteases

Baking, brewing and meat tenderization

Source: Afroz, Q.M. et al., Int. J. Appl. Res., 1,523-527, 2015.

TABLE 4.2

Microbial Enzymes and Their Utilities in Food Industry

Industry

Enzymes

Functions

Baking

Catalase

Processing of cheese

Lactase

Reduction of lactose in milk

Dairy

a-amylase

Bread softening of bread and adjustment of flour

Lipase

Conditioning and stability of dough

Beverage

a-amylase and (3-amylase

Hydrolysis of starch

Cellulase

Liquefaction of fruits

Proteases

Restrict the formation of haze

Source: Singh, R. et al., 2 Biotech., 6, 174, 2016.

Uses of Microbial Enzymes in Dairy and Baking Industry

Protease, esterase, lipase, catalase, lactase and other microbial enzymes have demonstrated wide range of applications in the field of dairy industry. In the first stage of cheese manufacturing, rennet or rennin has been used and functioned as milk coagulant. Protease has been used in the process of cheese ripening and modification of milk proteins for the reduction in allergens in cow milk products. Lipase has also been used in the ripening of cheese to improve the lipolytic flavours. To improve the dairy products sweetness and solubility, lactase has been used. Peptidase maintained the traditional flavour of cheese by breakage of bitter peptides (Afroz et al. 2015).

In baking industry, amylase has been exclusively used for the cake production, preparation of starch syrups, fruit juices and digestive aids (Couto and Sanroman 2006). Amylase is generally used in the fermentation of flour as it degrades the starch in the bread production. It has also enhanced the toasting qualities, taste and crust colour of the bread with additional sweetness (Gupta et al. 2003). Xylanase and lipase have been used for the improvement in shelf life of bread in bread production industry (Andreu et al. 1999; Butt et al. 2008).

Conclusion

In the advance research, biotechnology emerged as a necessary tool to handle the microbes. These microbes have been there on earth for millions of years and have great importance in the food processing. Enzymes from these microbial sources have immense potential in food, beverages, leather processing, feedstuff, pulp and paper industries. These enzymes have not only enhanced the quality, nutrition and shelf life of food products but also have been used in the different industries as medical and pharmaceutical industry. In conclusion, new development in metabolic engineering of microbes could lead to the new and effective enzyme schemes that may apply in food industry to make it more organic, sustainable and environment friendly.

REFERENCES

Adrio, J. L., and Demain, A. L. 2014. Microbial enzymes: Tools for biotechnological processes. Biomolecules 4:117-139.

Afroz, Q. M., Khan, A. K., Ahmed, P., and Uprit, S. 2015. Enzymes used in dairy industries. International Journal of Applied Research 1:523-527.

Almeida, C., Branyik, T., Moradas-Ferreira, P., and Teixeira, J. 2005. Use of two different carriers in a packed bed reactor for endo-polygalacturonase production by a yeast strain. Process Biochemistry 40:1937-1942.

Andreu, P., Collar, C., and Marti'nez-Anaya, M. A. 1999. Thermal properties of doughs formulated with enzymes and starters. European Journal of Food Research and Technology 209:286-293.

Aravindan, R., Anbumathi, P., and Viruthagiri, T. 2007. Lipase applications in food industry. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 6:141-158.

Atomi, H., Sato, T., and Kanai, T. 2011. Application of hyperthermophiles and their enzymes. Current Opinion Biotechnology 22:618-626.

Augustin, M. A., and Hemar, Y. 2009. Nano- and micro-structured assemblies for encapsulation of food ingredients. Chemical Society Reviews 38:902-912.

Bai. Y. X., Li. Y. R. Yang, Y., and Yi, L. X. 2006. Covalent immobilization of triacylg- lycerol lipase onto functionalized nanoscale SiO, spheres. Process Biochemistry 41:770-777.

Berka, R. M., and Cherry, J. R. 2006. Enzyme Biotechnology Basic Biotechnology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Brady, D., and Jordaan, J. 2009. Advances in enzyme immobilisation. Biotechnology Letters 31:1639-1650.

Butt, M. S„ Nadeem, M. T., Ahmad, Z., and Sultan, M. T. 2008. Xylanases and their applications in baking industry. Food Technology and Biotechnology 46:22-31.

Christopher, N., and Kumbalwar, M. 2015. Enzymes used in food industry: A systematic review. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 4:9830-9836.

Cieslinski, H., Kur, J., Bialkowska, A., Baran, I., Makowski, K., and Turkiewicz, M. 2005. Cloning, expression, and purification of a recombinant cold-adapted b-galactosi- dase from antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 22b. Protein Expression and Purification 39:27-34.

Couto, S. R., and Sanroman, M. A. 2006. Application of solid-state fermentation to food industry—A review. Journal of Food Engineering 76:291-302.

Da-Silva. E. G., Borges. M. E, Medina. C„ Piccoli, R. H., and Schwan, R. F. 2005. Pectinolytic enzymes secreted by yeasts from tropical fruits. FEMS Yeast Research 5:859-865.

De-Carvalho, С. C. 2011. Enzymatic and whole cell catalysis: Finding new strategies for old processes. Biotechnology Advances 29:75-83.

Deswal, D., Khasa, Y. R, and Kuhad, R. C. 2011. Optimization of cellulase production by a brown rot fungus Fomitopsis sp. RCK2010 under solid state fermentation. Bioresources Technology 102:6065-6072.

Djekrif-Dakhmouche, S„ Gheribi-Aoulmi, Z., Meraihi, Z., and Bennamoun, L. 2006. Application of a statistical design to the optimization of culture medium for ос-amylase production by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 grown on orange waste powder. Journal of Food Process Engineering 73:190-197.

Dupaigne. 1974. The aroma of bananas. Fruits 30:783-789.

Feller, G., and Gerday, C. 2003. Nature. Revista de Microbiologia 1:200-208.

Feller, G„ Narinx, E., Arpigny, J. L., Aittaleb, M., Baise, E., Geniot, S., and Gerday, C. 1996. Enzymes from psychrophilic organisms. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 18:189-202.

Feng, W., and Ji, P. 2011. Enzymes immobilized on carbon nanotubes. Biotechnology Advances 29:889-895.

Gupta, M. N., Kaloti, M, Kapoor, M., and Solanki, K. 2011. Nanomaterials as matrices for enzyme immobilization. Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization Biotechnology 39:98-109.

Gupta, R., Gigras, P, Mohapatra, H., Goswami, V. K., and Chauhan, B. 2003. Microbial ос-amylases: A biotechnological perspective. Process Biochemistry 38:1599-1616.

Heldman, D. R., and Hartel, R. W. 1997. Principles of Food Processing. Springer Science & Business Media.

Hernandez, M. S., Rodriguez, M. R., Guerra, N. P„ and Roses, R. P. 2006. Amylase production by Aspergillus niger in submerged cultivation on two wastes from food industries. Journal of Food Process Engineering 73:93-100.

Hess, M. 2008. Thermo-acidophilic proteins for biofuels production. Trends in Microbiology 16:414-419.

Himmel, M. E., Ruth, M. F., and Wyman, С. E. 1999. Cellulase for commodity products from cellulosic biomass. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 10:358-364.

Jaeger, К. E., and Reetz, M. T. 1998. Microbial lipases form versatile tools for biotechnology. Trends in Biotechnology 16:396-403.

Joshi, S., and Satyanarayana, T. 2013. Biotechnology of cold-active proteases. Journal of Biology 2:755-783.

Konsoula, Z., and Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, M. 2007. Co-production of alpha-amylase and beta-galactosidase by Bacillus subtilis in complex organic substrates. Bioresources Technology 98:150-157.

Kuhad, R. C., Singh, A., and Eriksson, К. E. 1997. Microorganisms and enzymes involved in the degradation of plant fiber cell walls. Advances in Biochemistry Engineering Biotechnology 57:45-125.

Kumar, L., Awasthi, G., and Singh, B. 2011. Extremophiles: A novel source of industrially important enzymes. Biotechnology Journal 10:1-15.

Margesin, R., and Schinner, F. 1994. Properties of cold adapted microorganisms and their potential role in biotechnology. Journal of Biotechnology 33:1-14.

Mendez, C., and Salas, J. A. 2001. Altering the glycosylation pattern of bioactive compounds. Trends in Biotechnology 19:449-456.

Monteiro, C. A., and Levy, R. B. 2010. A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of their processing. Public Health Nutrition 26:2039-2049.

Ogawa, J., and Shimizu, S. I. 2002. Industrial microbial enzymes: Their discovery by screening and use in large-scale production of useful chemicals in Japan. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 13:367-375.

Okanishi, M., Suzuki, N., and Furita, T. 1996. Variety of hybrid characters among recombinants obtained by interspecific protoplast fusion in streptomycetes. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 6:1233-1238.

Pandey. A.. Benjamin, S.. Soccol. C. R., Nigam, P, Kriger, N.. and Soccol, V. T. 1999. The realm of microbial lipases in biotechnology. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 29:119-131.

Pandey. A., Nigam, P. Soccol, C. R., Soccol, V. T., Singh. D.. and Mohan. R. 2000. Advances in microbial amylases. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 31:135-152.

Pikuta. E. V., Hoover, R. B., and Tang, J. 2007. Microbial Extremophiles at the limit of life. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 33:183-209.

Pretel, M. T. 1997. Pectic enzymes in fresh fruit processing: Optimization of enzymatic peeling of oranges. Process Biochemistry 32:43-49.

Rajagopalan, G., and Krishnan, C. 2008. Alpha-amylase production from catabolite derepressed Bacillus subtilis KCC103 utilizing sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. Bioresources Technology 99:3044-3050.

Ramteke, P. W., and Bhatt, M. K. 2007. Cold active polysaccharides and their potential industrial applications. Research Signpost 37:661-673.

Rao. M. B.. Tanksale. A. M., Ghatge. M. S., and Deshpande. V. V. 1998. Molecular and biotechnological aspects of microbial proteases. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 62:597-635.

Ray. R. C., and Rosell, С. M. 2016. Microbial Enzyme Technology in Food Applications. London. UK: CRC Press.

Reddy, N. S., Nimmagadda, A., and Rao, K. R. S. 2003. An overview of the microbial a-amylase family. African Journal of Biotechnology 2:645-648.

Russell, N. J. 1998. Molecular adaptations in psychrophilic bacteria: Potential for biotechnological applications. Advances in Biochemistry Engineering and Biotechnology 61:1-21.

Shinde, V. B., Deshmukh, S. B., and Bhoyar, M. G. 2015. Applications of major enzymes in food industry. Indian Journal of Farming 2:497-502.

Shukla, A., Rana, A., Kumar, L., Singh, B., and Ghosh, D. 2009. Assessment of detergent activity of Streptococcus sp. AS02 protease isolated from soil of Sahastradhara, Doon Valley, Uttarakhand. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 11:587-591.

Singh, A. 1999. Engineering enzyme properties. Indian Journal of Microbiology 39:65-77.

Singh, A., Kuhad, R. C., and Ward, О. P. 2007. Industrial application of microbial cellulases. In Lignocellulose Biotechnology: Future Prospects, eds. R. C. Kuhad, and A. Singh, pp. 345-358. New Delhi, India: I. K. International Publishing House.

Singh, R., Kumar, M., Mittal, A., and Mehta, P. K. 2016. Microbial enzymes: Industrial progress in 21st century. 3 Biotech 6:174.

Smith, C. A., Rangarajan, M., and Hartley, B. S. 1991. D-Xylose (D-glucose) isomer- ase from Arthrobacter strain N.R.R.L. B3728. Purification and properties. The Biochemical Journal 1:255-261.

Soccol, C. R., and Vandenberghe, L. P. S. 2003. Overview of applied solid state fermentation in Brazil. Biochemistry Engineering Journal 13:205-218.

Souza, P. M., and Magalhaes, P. O. 2010. Application of microbial a-amylase in industry—A review. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 41:850-861.

Tanyildizi, M. S., Ozer, D., and Elibol, M. 2005. Optimization of a-amylase production by Bacillus sp. using response surface methodology. Process Biochemistry 40:2291-2296.

Uma, C., Gomathi, D., Muthulakshmi, C., and Gopalakrishnan, V. K. 2010. Production, purification and characterization of invertase by Aspergillus flavus using fruit peel waste as substrate. Advances in Biological Research 4:31-36.

Verma, M. L., Barrow, C. J„ and Puri, M. 2013. Nanobiotechnology as a novel paradigm for enzyme immobilisation and stabilisation with potential applications in biodiesel production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 97:23-39.

Zhang, Y. H. R, Himmel, M. E„ and Mielenz, J. R. 2006. Outlook for cellulase improvement: Screening and selection strategies. Biotechnology Advances 24:452-481.

 
Source
< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >