Menu
Home
Log in / Register
 
Home arrow Geography arrow Seismic Japan

Japan according to Earthquakes

1. Kaibara Ekken, Kadōkun, Ekken-kai, eds., Ekken zenshū, vol. 3 (Ekken zenshū kankōbu, 1911), 452.

2. Print #134 in Miyata Noboru and Takada Mamoru, eds., Namazue: Shinsai to Nihon bunka (Ribun shuppan, 1995), 322; see also 10–11. To view this print, see gazo.dl.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ishimoto/4/04–017/00002.jpg.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Kitahara Itoko, “Saigai to kawaraban: Sono rekishiteki tenkai,” in Kinoshita Naoyuki and Yoshimi Shunya, eds., Nyūsu no tanjō: Kawaraban to shinbun nishiki-e no jōhōsekai (Tōkyō daigaku sōgō kenkyū hakubutsukan, 1999), 32–33.

6. Satō Hiroo, Shinkoku Nihon, Chikuma shinsho 591 (Chikuma shobō, 2006), 69–73, and Kitai Toshio, Shinkokuron no keifu (Hōzōkan, 2006), 50–53. The Jōei Formulary (Jōei shikimoku) is more commonly known in Japanese scholarship as Goseibai shikimoku.

7. Nagura Tetsuzō, Fūshigan ishin henkaku: Minshū wa tennō o dō mieta ka

(Kōsō shobō, 2004), 186–187.

8. One catfish print features a temporary brothel named Kannazukiya (House of the month of no deities). See print #116 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 314–315.

9. Sangawa Akira, Jishin no Nihonshi: Daichi wa nani o kataru no ka?

(Chūōkōron shinsha, 2007), 169–170.

10. “Shinano bukō, chōshin hikan,” in NRJSS, vol. 3, 334.

11. “Ansei ni itsubōnen jūgatsu futsuka jishin no koto,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 535.

12. “Chōsen Taiheiki,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 207; for other accounts of damage to temples, see 191–193. See also Sangawa, Jishin no Nihonshi, 95–96.

13. “Seiu nikki,” in NJS, hoi (supplement), 175.

14. “Kasubyōshi kan,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 253–254, and Asai Ryōi, Kaname'ishi (1662), in Taniwaki Masachika, Oka Masahiko, and Inoue Kazuhito, eds., trans., Kanazōshishū (Shōgakkan, 1999), 35.

15. Asai, Kaname'ishi (1662), 40–64, quoted passage, 64. See also Kitahara Itoko,

“Saigai to jōhō,” in Kitahara Itoko, ed., Nihon saigaishi (Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 2006), 236–240.

16. “Yabure mado no ki,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 555–556.

17. For modern permutations of the idea of native carpentry practices and architecture as resistant to earthquakes, see Gregory Clancey, Earthquake Nation: The Cultural Politics of Japanese Seismicity, 1868–1930 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).

18. AKR, vol. 1, 4–7 (jō no yonjō no shichi). See also Arakawa Hidetoshi, ed., Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi: Ansei kenmonroku, Ansei kenmonshi, Ansei fūbunshū (Kyōikusha, 1982), 29–34.

19. AKR, vol. 3, 13–16 (ge no jūsange no jūroku). See also Arakawa, Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 90–94, and Kitahara Itoko, Jishin no shakaishi: Ansei daijishin to minshū (Kōdansha, 2000), 188.

20. “Chōryūji monjo,” in NJS, hoi (supplement), 91.

21. Print #22, Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 138, 251–252. See also Wakamizu Suguru, Edokko kithsitsu to namazue (Kadokawa gakugei shuppan,

2007), 163–173.

22. DNJS, vol. 1 (), 203–205.

23. Quoted in bvd97629.niiblo.jp/e5571.html (accessed November 13, 2010). See also Sangawa, Jishin no Nihonshi, 158.

24. See NJS, hoi (supplement), 744–745 for other accounts of the earthquake

expressed in moral terms. Tōka nendaiki, for example, describes the earth
taking revenge on “parents who cast off their children and children who cast off their parents.”

25. “Echigo jishin kudoki,” at blogs.yahoo.co.jp/gojukara11/2937035. html (accessed October 28, 2010). Quoted verses begin thirty-six lines down

from the top. See also Hashimoto Manpei, Jishingaku kotohajime: Kaitakusha

Sekiya Seikei no shōgai (Asahi shinbunsha, 1983), 40–41. In Hashimoto's view, the earthquake was simply a vehicle moralists used to amplify their message.

26. “Echigo jishin kudoki,” at blogs.yahoo.co.jp/gojukara11/2937035. html (accessed October 28, 2010), and Saitō Masachi, Goze kudoki jishin no minoue (publisher unknown, 1829). See also Hashimoto, Jishingaku, 40–41,

Sankawa, Jishin no Nihonshi, 162, and Gerald Groemer, Bakumatsu no hayari uta: kudokibushi to bushi no shin kenkyū (Meicho shuppan, 1995), 115–120.

27. Ikeya, for example, claims that the loss of magnetism in the stone at the glasses shop discussed in the previous chapter was “an event known to have occurred two hours before the Ansei Edo Earthquake.” See Ikeya Motoji, Earthquakes and Animals: From Folk Legends to Science (River Edge, NJ: World Scientific, 2004), vi; see also 5, 12, 13, 15, and 88 for other examples of taking early modern journalistic accounts at face value. Ikeya is hardly alone in this tendency, which I discuss more fully in chapter 6. A true coseismic signal, if such a thing exists, would be a measurable phenomenon that varies in a regular, predictable manner in relation to seismic activity.

28. AKR, vol. 1, 1–2 (jo no ichi, jo no ni). See also Arakawa, Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo

kaimetsu no hi, 18.

29. AKR, vol. 1, 2 (jo no san). See also Arakawa, Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 22.

30. Kitahara, “Saigai to jōhō,” 239.

31. “Chōshin hiroku, jōkan/gekan,” in NRJSS, vol. 3, 220–222.

32. “Jishin henji go-kyūtōsho,” in NRJSS, vol. 3, 241–255.

33. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 440.

34. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 436.

35. For an extensive analysis of the possible reasons for the ban, see Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 156–182. Kitahra concludes that Ansei Chronicle was not banned because it contained anti-bakufu sentiment, nor because it included some prints that had previously been banned. The main reason was that

it was published without approval soon after city authorities had issued repeated prohibitions against such items. In short, its appearance in print at that time (early 1856), not its content, was a de facto provocation.

36. FN, 517–518, and AKS, vol. 2, 7–9. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo

kaimetsu no hi, 140–142.

“Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 437 and AKS, vol. 1, vicinity of p. 15 or 16, near the large illustration of the banks of the
Tenjin River in Honjo in flames. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 121–122, 124 and Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 16–17.

37. AKS, vol. 3, 16. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 187–188.

38. AKS, vol. 2, 6. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 138–139.

39. AKS, vol. 3, 21–22 with brief mention in vol. 2, in the text of the illustration of Shin-Yoshiwara located between pp. 2 & 4. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 148–149, 196–197.

40. AKS, vol. 3, tale with illustration inserted after p.12 See also Arakawa

Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 182–183.

41. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 437 and AKS, vol. 1, vicinity of p. 15 or 16, near the large illustration of the banks of the Tenjin River in Honjo in flames. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 121–122, 124 and Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 16–17.

42. AKS, vol. 1, 16. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 124–125.

43. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 167. For a summary of many of these tales, see pp. 164–167, 206–207.

44. AKS, vol. 2, 16. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 143–144.

45. AKS, vol. 3, 17. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 189.

46. AKS, vol. 3, 17. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 190.

47. AKS, vol. 2, 16. See also Arakawa Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 161–162. See Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 167–169 for summaries and a brief discussion of the supernatural tales. Regarding the overall literary nature

of the Kenmonshi, see Stephan Köhn, “Between Fiction and Non-Fiction: Documentary Literature in the Late Edo Period,” in Susanne Formanek and Sepp Linhart, Written Texts—Visual Texts: Woodblock-Printed Media in Early Modern Japan (Amsterdam: Hotei Publishing, 2005), 283–310.

48. Ukiyō no arisama, quoted in Miki, Kyōto daijishin, 74, 105.

49. Miki, Kyōto daijishin, 75–78. See pp. 79–86 for the details of other rumors.

50. “Hyōgo kenshi, bekkan” in NJS, hoi (supplement), 93.

51. Miki, Kyōto daijishin, 87–88.

52. A two-part kawaraban print of the Sanjō Earthquake can be found in Nishimaki Kōzaburō, ed. Kawaraban shinbun: Edo, Meiji sanbyaku jiken, vol. 1 (Heibonsha, 1978), 61. It claims a wildly exaggerated death toll of 30,000.

53. Kitahara Itoko, Jishin no shakaishi: Ansei daijishin to minshū (Kōdansha, 2000), 92–93. For a good example of exaggerated damage reports, see the first sentences of “Jishin kidan miyako manzairaku” in DNJS, vol. 1 (kō), 558.

54. Quoted in Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 93.

55. Toyo Tokinari, Honchō jishinki. Edo josei bunko, vol. 49 (Ōzorasha, 1994), no pagination.

56. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 93.

57. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 214–216. 58. “Tadokoro-shi kiroku,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 310.

59. For example, see prints #46, #48, and #49 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 14–15, 223, 267–269. To view print #46, see gazo.dl.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ ishimoto/2/02–125/00001.jpg. Notice the members of the construction trades in the upper left rushing to protect the giant catfish from attack by Yoshiwara courtesans and employees.

61. DNJS, vol. 1 (), 568.

62. Clancey, Earthquake Nation, 131.

63. See J. Charles Schencking, “The Great Kantō Earthquake and the Culture of Catastrophe and Reconstruction in 1920s Japan,” Journal of Japanese Studies 34, no. 2 (summer 2008): 295–331 (quote on 303).

64. “Tadokoro-shi kiroku,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 310. A koku was roughly 180 liters in volume or 150 kilograms in weight.

65. “Tanabe mandaiki,” in NRJSS, vol. 2, 90–92.

66. Kitahara Itoko, “Kinsei ni okeru saigaikyūsai to fukkō,” in Kitahara, Nihon saigaishi, 196–197.

67. “Gokiroku kenbyōki,” in NRJSS, vol. 2, 171.

68. “Senfukuji shoji kenmon zakki,” in NRJSS, vol. 2, 175.

69. For details, including extensive tabular data, see NRJSS, vol. 2, 179–190. For additional documentation of local relief efforts, see 191–199.

70. Harada Kazuhiko, “Matsushiro-han,” in Chūō bōsai kaigi, 1847 Zenkōji jishin, 110.

71. For a hand-drawn map illustrating the collapsed mountain and affected villages, see NRJSS, vol. 2, 239–240. For a better version of this same map and another similar to it, see NRJSS, vol. 3, 354–357. For another map, see um.u-tokyo.ac.jp/publish_db/1999news/02/images/030_01.jpg.

72. “Kenshūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 105–107, 109–111; Harada Kazuhiko, “Matsushiro-han,” in Chūō bōsai kaigi, 1847 Zenkōji jishin, 110–111; Itō Kazuaki, Jishin to funka no Nihonshi (Iwanami shoten, 2002), 138–139; Shinano mainichi shinbunsha kaihstsukyoku shuppanbu, Zenkōji daijishin, 138–150; and Kitō Yasuyuki and Nagase Satoshi, “Saigai to kyūsai: Machi to mura,” in Akahane and Kitahara, Zenkōji jishin, 75–94.

73. “Kenshūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 107, 109–111; Itō, Jishin to funka no Nihonshi, 139–141; and Shinano mainichi shinbunsha kaihstsukyoku shuppanbu, Zenkōji daijishin, 150–180.

Harada, “Matsushiro-han,” 111. For a comprehensive study of emergency response, relief, and rebuilding efforts, see 71–121. See also Shinano mainichi shinbunsha kaihstsukyoku shuppanbu, Zenkōji daijishin, 180–204. For a sample of relevant documents concerning specific relief efforts and proposals, see “Kamahara Dōzan jishin kiji,” 51–52, 83–85, 90–91; “Nogisono zakki,”
139; “Daijishin kōzui saigai kiroku,” 212–232; and “Sinkōkan,” 317–318, in

DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu).

74. Itō, Jishin to funka no Nihonshi, 186, and Kitahara, “Saigai to jōhō,” 234. The process of creating new fields and preserving them also required active dredging and infrastructure work by the Obama domain. For details, see Higashi Sachiyo, “Uramikawa kussaku jigyō to shinden kaihatsu,” in Chūō

bōsai kaigi, 1662 Kanbun Ōmi-Wakasa jishin hōkokusho (Mizuho jōhōsōken

kabushikigaisha, 2005), 115–119.

75. Higashi Sachiyo, “Kanbun jishin ga motarashita mono,” in Chūō bōsai kaigi,

1662 Kanbun Ōmi-Wakasa jishin hōkokusho, 119–121; tabular data, 120.

76. “Mikata goko shūhen no shinden kaihatsu,” in NJS, hoi (supplement), 180.

77. “Higata Kanzeon engi,” in NRJSS, vol. 2, 61.

78. Sangawa, Jishin no Nihonshi, 137. The geologically similar 1923 Great Kantō Earthquake caused approximately two meters of uplift.

79. Itō, Jishin to funka no Nihonshi, 86–88. Itō states that maximum uplift of the Bōsō Peninsula was 5.5 meters.

80. “Tateyama-wan engan no okeru Genroku jishin higai to higata riyō nitsuite,” in NRJSS, vol. 3, 122–125. See these pages for additional examples and maps.

81. For details, see “Tateyama-wan engan ni okeru Genroku jishin higai to higata riyō nitsuite,” in NRJSS, vol. 3, 125–128.

82. Sangawa, Jishin no Nihonshi, 149–154, and Itō, Jishin to funka no Nihonshi,

121–126.

83. Nishimaki, Kawaraban shinbun, 125, and Inagaki, Edo no taihen, 50–51.

84. Sangawa, Jishin no Nihonshi, 180–181, and Ishibashi, Daishinran no jidai,

25–26.

85. Ishibashi, Daishinran no jidai, 27.

86. “Kiki kōki,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 284.

87. “Kasshi yawa,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 523.

88. Susanna M. Hoffman, “The Monster and the Mother: The Symbolism of Disaster,” in Susanna M. Hoffman and Anthony Oliver-Smith, eds.,

Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster (Santa Fe, NM: School

of American Research Press, 2002), 131.

89. “Chōshin hiroku, gekan,” in NRJSS, vol. 3, 237–241.

90. Okumiya Masaaki, Kokuryōki (no date or publisher), nineteenth page face, or “Kokuryōki,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 321. Regarding the Hakuhō Earthquake, see Itō, Jishin to funka no Nihonshi, 8–10. A second entry in Kokuryōki also

describes the Hakuhō earthquake and the massive inundation of fields, which “since then have been the ocean.” The passage explains that knowledge of

the Hakuhō earthquake has been passed down in Tosa as local legend but without definite proof. In any case, the present earthquake is “unprecedented
since ancient times.” “Kokuryōki” (the second “Kokuryōki” entry), in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 330. For a diagram showing land loss in Tosa before and after the Hakuhō earthquake, see NJS, hoi (supplement), 2–3.

91. Print #73, in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 288–291.

92. See Yan Y. Kagan, David G. Jackson, and Robert J. Geller, “Characteristic Earthquake Model, 1884–2011, R.I.P.,” Seismological Research Letters 83 (November/December 2012): 951–953, and Robert Geller (Robaato Geraa), Nihonjin wa shiranai “jishin yochi” no shōtai (Futabasha, 2012), 160–161.

93. Hoffman, “The Monster and the Mother,” 133.

94. “Gen'en jitsuroku,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 250–251. The reign name date for the first Chinese earthquake, “Xiangxing 27,” is impossible because this reign lasted only one year, from 1278 to 1279. Asai Ryōi also mentions the same Chinese earthquake that killed seven thousand. See Asai, Kaname'ishi, 69.

95. “Kōretsu hikki” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 329.

96. “Zoku jishin zassan,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 428.

97. “Koizumi Sōken nichiroku,” in NRJSS, vol. 2, 233.

99. DNJS, vol. 1 (), 568.

100. “Kanrosō,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 302.

101. “Jishin kidan miyako manzairaku,” in DNJS, vol. 1 (), 558, 560. There was a long-standing folk custom of singing this verse to ward off earthquakes.

See Koga rekishi hakubutsukan, eds., Tenpenchii to seikimatsu: Nihonjin no saigaikan (Ibaraki-ken, Koga-shi, Japan: Koga rekishi hakubutsukan, 1999), 35.

102. “Shinano bukō, Chōshin hikan,” in NRJSS, vol. 3, 313.

103. “Eikan zasshi,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 248–249.

104. Satō, Shinkoku Nihon, 90–93, 130–158.

105. “Ōsaka jishinki,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 334.

106. “Zoku jishin zassan,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 419.

107. “Zoku jishin zassan,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 455.

108. NRJSS, vol. 2, 434.

 
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
 
Subjects
Accounting
Business & Finance
Communication
Computer Science
Economics
Education
Engineering
Environment
Geography
Health
History
Language & Literature
Law
Management
Marketing
Mathematics
Political science
Philosophy
Psychology
Religion
Sociology
Travel