The Ansei Edo Earthquake

1. “Ōjishin ōkaze kenmonroku,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 533.

2. “Nai no nochimigusa,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 579–580.

3. “Jifūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 538. See also “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 446.

4. Chūō bōsai kaigi, eds., 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho (Fuji sōgō kenkyūsho, 2004), 77.

5. AKR, vol. 3, 10 (ge no jū). See also Arakawa Hidetoshi, ed., Jitsuroku,

Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi: Ansei kenmonroku, Ansei kenmonshi, Ansei fūbunshū

(Kyōikusha, 1982), 85–86. 6. According to Edward A. Keller and Nicholas Pinter, “The potential for amplification of surface waves to cause damage was again demonstrated with tragic results in the 1989 Mw 7.2 Loma Prieta (San Francisco) earthquake, when the upper tier of the Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, California, collapsed, killing forty-one people (fig. 1.16). Collapse of the tiered freeway occurred on a section of roadway constructed on bay fill and mud. Where the freeway was constructed on older, stronger alluvium, less shaking occurred and

the structure survived. Extensive damage was also recorded in the Marina District of San Francisco (fig. 1.17), primarily in areas constructed on bay fill and mud, including debris dumped into the bay during the cleanup following the 1906 earthquake.” See Keller and Pinter, Active Tectonics: Earthquakes,

Uplift, and Landscape, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002),

21–23 (figures on 24).

7. Susan Elizabeth Hough, Earthshaking Science: What We Know (and Don't Know) about Earthquakes (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002), 80–83.

8. Bruce A. Bolt, Earthquakes (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1993, fifth printing, 1997), 266.

9. Bolt, Earthquakes, 132.

10. Kitahara Itoko, ed., Nihon Saigaishi (Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 2006), 254.

11. Andrew L. Markus, “Gesaku Authors and the Ansei Earthquake of 1855,” in Dennis Washburn and Alan Tansman, eds., Studies in Modern Japanese

Literature (Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan,

1997), 55.

12. Gregory Clancey, Earthquake Nation: The Cultural Politics of Japanese Seismicity, 1868–1930 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 123, 220.

13. Ibid., 123.

14. Most major studies of the Ansei Edo earthquake from the 1990s onward discuss military casualties in some detail. The most extensive treatment, including discussion of issues in interpreting different types of data, is Chūō bōsai kaigi, 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho (Fuji sōgō kenkyūsho, 2004), especially Kitahara Itoko, “Saigai to Shakaizō,” 43–59. See also the detailed tables and charts in this volume, 95–122. Also valuable is Noguchi Takehiko, Ansei Edo jishin: Saigai to seiji kenryōku (Chikuma shobō, 1997), 72–73, 108–110.

15. Clancey, Earthquake Nation, 55.

16. Nakamura Misao, “Ansei Edo jishin,” in Chūō bōsai kaigi, 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho, 2–5.

17. Kitahara, “Saigai to Shakaizō,” 51.

Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 71, 73, 75 (map), 91–92. For an extended discussion of the interconnections between topography and political power
with respect to the destruction of prime bakufu real estate, see 71–128. Subsequent studies have reinforced many of Noguchi's main points. See Nakamura Misao, Matsuura Ritsuko, Kayano Ichirō, Karakama Ikuo, and Nishiyama Akihito, “Ansei Edo jishin (1855/11/11) no Edo shichū no higai,” Rekishi jishin 18 (2002): 77–96, and Nakamura, Kayano, and Matsuura, “Ansei Edo Jishin no shutoken de no higai,” Rekishi jishin 19 (2003): 32–37.

18. Saitō Gesshin, Ansei itsubō bukō chidō no ki, in Edo sōsho kankō kai, eds.,

Edo sōsho 9 (Edo sōsho kankōkai, 1917), 2.

19. For a discussion of these geographical details, see Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 73–81, 97–98. Especially helpful are the maps on 75, 79, and 99. Also helpful for visualizing the differences between pre-1600 Edo and post-1600 Edo are the two maps on the inside cover of Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History, Kazuo Hozumi, illus., H. Mack Horton, trans. (Kodansha, 2003).

20. See Naito, Edo, 36–37, for more details. See also Tsuji Yoshinobu, Sennen shinsai: Kurikaesu jishin to tsunami no rekishi ni manabu (Daiyamondo sha, 2011), 88–90, 182, for a useful discussion and map of daimyō mansions and Hibiya Cove.

21. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 98.

22. “Yabure mado no ki,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 559–560.

23. Sakuma Chōkei, “Ansei daijishin jikken dan,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 470.

24. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 95–96.

25. “Yabure mado no ki,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 561.

26. “Jifūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 538.

27. “Nai no nochimigusa,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 573–574.

28. “Nai no nochimigusa,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 574. See also Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 72–73, for discussion of another source reaching precisely the same conclusions, and Kitahara Itoko, Jishin no shakaishi: Ansei daijishin to minshū (Kōdansha, 2000), 109–111. See also Tsuji, Sennen shinsai, 88–90.

29. “Nai no nochimigusa,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 572.

30. For discussions of secondary and tertiary factors such as population density, construction methods, access to open spaces, and so forth, see Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 53, 60–64, and Kitahara Itoko, Jishin no shakaishi, 50–79.

31. “Ansei daijishin jikken dan,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 473–474. See

also Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 64.

32. Saitō, Ansei itsubō bukō chidō no ki, 4. See also Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin,

33–34, 148–149.

33. For the initial survey order and preliminary data, including property damage, see NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 52, 53–56. See also 59–60 regarding follow-up and 90–95 for decrees from the Machigaisho and preliminary data. 34. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 45–52, 71, 74–79, 114–115 (regarding survey results appearing in the press). The data for casualties appears in tabular form on 46, and an image of the popular press report of casualty figures is on

113. See also Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 59–60, with the data in tabular form in Chūō bōsai kaigi, 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho, 97. This case was probably not the first instance of bakufu officials providing government information to popular publishers. In the context of discussing commercial publication since the middle seventeenth century of an encyclopedic genre

known as Military Mirrors (bukan), Mary Elizabeth Berry concludes that “the Tokugawa administration itself was the major supplier of Mirror material.” See Berry, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 110.

35. Saitō, Ansei itsubō bukō chidō no ki, 23–24, and “Fujiokaya nikki (ge),” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 410–412. Kitahara bases her analysis of casualties on the figures of 4,293 deaths and 2,759 injuries. See Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 46, and Chūō bōsai kaigi, 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho, 97, for a presentation of the data in tabular form.

36. “Nai no nochimigusa,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 574–579.

37. “Yabure mado no ki,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 556–557, 558.

38. “Jifūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 539–542.

39. The 540,000 figure comes from Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 60.

40. “Kainai jishinroku,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 503.

41. “Ansei itsubō Edo daijishin hikki,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 516.

42. “Yabure mado no ki,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 558.

43. Anonymous, Jishin narabini shukka saikenki (publisher unknown, 1855), image spanning 7–8. To view the image, see archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/ kosho/wo01/wo01_02952/wo01_02952_p0009.jpg.

44. AKS, vol. 3, illustrations by Utagawa Kuniyoshi et al., author(s) and publisher unknown, 1856, twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth page faces. To view the image, see archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kosho/wo01/wo01_04209/ wo01_04209_0003/wo01_04209_0003_p0014.jpg.

45. “Ansei itsubō Edo daijishin hikki,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 516.

46. “Jifūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 539.

47. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 433.

48. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 111–112.

49. For a map of the originally planned eleven batteries, see Nagura Tetsuzō, Fūshigan ishin henkaku: Minshū wa tennō o dō mieta ka (Kōsō shobō, 2004), 168.

50. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 61, 64.

51. Nagura, Fūshigan ishin no henkaku, 171–173. The popular verse was based on

Hyanunin isshu #15. 52. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 103–104.

53. One example is “Ansei itsubō Edo daijishin hikki,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 516. The story of the fire in the magazine is preceded by a disclaimer in small letters: “This is probably a groundless tale.” See also “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 438, 451. That account's author, Miyazaki Narumi, includes the tale of the exploding magazine in volume 1 of his account and corrects it in volume 2.

54. For example, see Edo Ōjishin matsudai hanashi no tane, 2. To view this image, see archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kosho/wo01/wo01_03639/wo01_03639_ p0003.jpg.

55. Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 451. Platforms 1, 2, and 3 “were shaken down into the ocean.”

56. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 103–107.

57. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 438.

58. Markus, “Gesaku Authors,” 57.

59. “Nai no nochimigusa,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 573.

60. “Jifūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 538.

61. Saitō, Ansei itsubō bukō chidō no ki, 9. See Markus, “Gesaku Authors,” 57–58, for a lengthy, vivid description by Saitō Gesshin from a different work.

62. “Fujiokaya nikki (ge),” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 386.

63. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 443. See also Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 141.

64. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 73–74.

65. Cecilia Segawa Seigle, Yoshiwara: The Glittering World of the Japanese Courtesan (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1993), 207.

66. For a list of temporary brothel locations, see print #150, Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 332–333; “Yabure mado no ki,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 565–566; and NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 73.

67. The basic cost at these brothels was 1 bu (one-fourth of a ryō). See Kitani Makoto, Namazue shinkō: Saigai no kosumorojii (Tsuchiura-shi:

Tsukuba shorin, 1984), 57. For comparison, the basic cost of a night with a zashikimochi (one rank blow an oiran) at Shin-Yoishiwara was 1 or 2 bu,

and a night with a heyamochi (one rank lower) ranged from 0.5 bu to 1.0 bu.

See Cecilia Segawa Seigle, Yoshiwara: The Glittering World of the Japanese Courtesan (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1993), 231.

68. “Jishin kidan roku,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 508. This tale is reminiscent of an account by Asai Ryōi in 1662 of a collapsing storehouse killing all the women of a wealthy household. See Asai Ryōi, Kaname'ishi (1662), in Taniwaki Masachika, Oka Masahiko, and Inoue Kazuhito, eds., trans., Kanazōshishū (Shōgakkan, 1999), 21–22.

69. “Nai no nochimigusa,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 570. 70. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 118–120.

71. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 432–433. See also 454, 455. Noguchi points out that according to official allowances, the wages of roof thatchers rose 50 percent, while roof tile installers' wages rose only 9 percent because tiled roofs lost their popularity. Ansei Edo jishin,

202. Actual wage rates were higher, but the official figures indicate the approximate relative differences.

72. See, for example, “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2,

part 1, 431, 441–442, 454, and 455–456.

73. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 217.

74. Print #23 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 252. See also Wakamizu Suguru, Edokko kishitsu to namazue (Kadokawa gakugei shuppan, 2007), 71–73. See figure 7 in the present volume.

75. “Yabure mado no ki,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 552–553.

76. “Jifūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 539.

77. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 432, 454.

78. Print #62 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 18–19, 278–280. See also Wakamizu Suguru, Namazu wa odoru: Edo no namazue omoshiro bunseki (Bungeisha, 2003), 62–65.

79. See, for example, prints #110 and #111 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 138, 311–312. See also Markus, “Gesaku Authors,” 56–57, and Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 241–245.

80. Nangitori (Hard-to-Figure-Out Bird) is a good example of a print critical of the newly rich. Five tradesmen are sitting around in an expensive restaurant. A large catfish is going to be their feast during a night of drinking and revelry. A giant bird, however, swoops down and snatches the catfish away from them. The bird is “hard to fi e out” because it consists entirely of tools and objects from occupations adversely effected by the earthquake. Its tail feathers are oars for small boats, and its wings are books, dry goods, abacuses, and

tall geta shoes. Its neck and crown are the hairpins of elite courtesans and

tea ceremony whisks. In other words, the bird represents such professions as tea ceremony teachers, courtesans, and small boat operators. It also includes booksellers, pawnshops, and clothing stores. Print #108 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 225, 310–311. To view this print, see gazo.dl.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ ishimoto/2/02–058/00001.jpg. See also Tomisawa Tatsuzō, “Nishikie no nyūsu sei: Namazue, hashikae, Bōshin sensō-ki no fūshiga o megutte,” in Kinoshita Naoyuki and Yoshimi Shunya, eds., Nyūsu no tanjō: Kawaraban to shinbun

nishikie no jōhō sekai (Tōkyō daigaku sōgō kenkyū hakubutsukan, 1999), 195.

81. Print #88 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 224, 298–299. For a discussion of prints featuring this motif, see Wakamizu, Edokko, 60–65. To view this print, see gazo.dl.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ishimoto/2/02–100/00001.jpg. 82. Print #99 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 224, 303–304. See also Abe Yoshinari, “Jishin to hitobito no sōzōryoku,” in Chūō bōsai kaigi, 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho, 141–142. To view this print, see gazo.dl.itc

.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ishimoto/2/02–035/00001.jpg.

83. Print #94 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 301.

84. Print #85 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 297. See also Abe Yasunari, “Jishin to hitobito no sōzōryoku” in Chūō bōsai kaigi, Ansei Edo jishin, 139–143. To view this print, see dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/1302029.

85. Print #130 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 13, 320–322. See figure 9 in the present volume.

86. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, hyō 8, 203.

87. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 456; Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 202–204; Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 245–246; and Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 66.

88. “Ansei daijishin jikkendan,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 456.

89. See Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 245–246, for a discussion of this matter.

90. Print #129 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 222, 320. To view this image, see um.u-tokyo.ac.jp/publish _db/1999news/04/403/images/194.jpg.

91. Print #69 in Miyata and Takada, Namazue, 285–286. To view this print, see gazo.dl.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ishimoto/2/02–047/00001.jpg.

92. Saitō, Ansei itsubō bukō chidō no ki, 29. See also “Jifūroku” DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 539.

93. This round of temple services was the second major religious intervention by the bakufu. On the seventh day of the tenth month, it paid thirteen shrines throughout the country to conduct earthquake prayer rites. See Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 194.

94. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 69–70.

95. For brief letters by retainers to the ōmetsuke, reporting on their actions the night of the earthquake, see “Bakufu satasho,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 527–537. Some also include informal mention of losses incurred by the retainers.

See also Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 43–47, and Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 83–84.

96. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 3.

97. Ibid.

98. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 181–184, and Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 47–50.

99. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 187–189, and Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 46.

100. For specific letters authorizing the loans and grants, including the dates and amounts of the loans, see Tōkyō shiyakusho, ed., Tōkyō shishi kō, kyūsaihen (Rinsen shoten, 1975), 457–467 and 160–163, for official entries regarding these matters. See also Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 50–51, 67–68, and

hyō 2-8, 2-9, and 2-10; Chūō bōsō kaigi, 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho, 99;
and Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 184–188, including hyō 6, 7, and 8. See also “Jifūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 539.

101. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 187–188.

102. Information based on the recollections of Sakuma Chōkei. See “Ansei daijishin jikkendan,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 470. See also Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 252, and Noguchi, Ansei Edo Jishin, 149–150.

103. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 56–57.

104. Ibid., 61–62. See also Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 74–75, and Kitahara,

Jishin no shakaishi, 259–260, 266–268.

105. For details regarding medical treatment, see “Ansei daijishin jikkendan,” in

NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 472–473.

106. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 79.

107. For a discussion of these practical difficulties, see “Jifūroku,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 539.

108. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 90.

109. “Ansei daijishin jikkendan,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 470–471; Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 155–160; and Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 254–263. For tables showing the locations and number of residents in temporary housing, see Kitahara, 254 and hyō 2-13, Chūō bōsō kaigi, 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho, 101. Nearly every substantial account of the earthquake and many popular prints list the locations of temporary housing. To cite but one example, see “Yabure mado no ki,” in DNJS, vol. 2 (otsu), 554.

110. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 97–98.

111. “Ansei daijishin jikkendan,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 473. There is an excellent visual image of a similar scene toward the end of a long scroll of earthquake-related materials from 1855: Edo ōjishin kiji. To view the image, see archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kosho/bunko10/bunko10_08871/ bunko10_08871_p0018.jpg. Two samurai officials sit with a banner that says “go-yō” (on duty) as other officials distribute food aid (directly above it is

an announcement about temporary housing). AKR includes an image of a

samurai official distributing food aid in the form of cooked rice (in front of a damaged restaurant). AKR, vol. 1, 4 (jō e yon). To view this image, see archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kosho/wo01/wo01_03628/wo01_03628_0001/ wo01_03628_0001_p0023.jpg. See also Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 159–160.

112. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 97.

114. Ibid., 97–98.

115. For documents connected with food relief, see “Shimai, hidari no gotoshi,” in Tōkyō shiyakusho, ed., Tōkyōshi shikō, kyūsaihen 4 (Rinsen shoten, 1975, originally published 1922), 474–487, and NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 95–105, 180–182. See also Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 260–265, and Kitahara, “Saigia no shakaizō,” 75–76. 116. The broader context was the shogunate's Edo-first policy. See Anne Walthall, “Edo Riots,” in James L. McClain, John W. Merriman, and Ugawa Kaoru, eds., Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994), 419.

117. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 52–53. See also 63–64 regarding lumber supplies.

118. Kitahara, “Saigia no shakaizō,” 76–78, and Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 246–248.

119. For the various decrees concerning wages and prices, see NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 51, 58–59, 62, 64–72, 79–80, and 90.

120. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 79–80. A similar decree was issued on the same day (supplemented on the next day) warning plasterers about excessive wages. See 80–81.

121. Regarding righteous granaries, see Mark J. Ravina, “Confucian Banking: The Community Granary (Shasō) in Rhetoric and Practice,” in Bettina GramlichOka and Gregory Smits, eds., Economic Thought in Early Modern Japan (Leiden: Brill, 2010), 179–204.

122. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 107–121.

123. Ibid., 74.

124. Ibid., 68–69. See also Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaishi,” 78.

125. For a warning against such fraud, issued on the fifth day of the thirteenth month, see NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 74.

126. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 167.

127. AKS, vol. 3, 5–6. See also Arakawa, Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 172.

128. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 288–290. For several examples of bushi

contributions, see “Ansei zakki,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 183–184.

129. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 126, 286–287.

130. For examples of dozens of temples actively involved in aid, see “Ansei zakki,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 184–189, 193–196, 198–200, 210–214, 217–222, and 224–231.

131. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 288, and Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 194.

132. For decrees and the text of formal notices of award, see NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 76–78.

133. NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 125. For documents recognizing hundreds of examples of relief provided by a wide range of townspeople, see NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 122–157.

134. Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 79.

135. AKS, vol. 1, 6, 8–11, 14, vol. 2, 10–13, 5 and 6 page faces from end (pagination barely discernible), and vol. 3, 7–9, 11. See also Arakawa, Jitsuroku, Ō-Edo kaimetsu no hi, 107–108, 109, 113, 114–115, 117, 151, 155–155, 168, 169, 173, and 177. 136. Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin, 174, 176–179. Kitahara points out that popular newspapers issued segyō (charity) editions to honor donors. Such publicity, of course, also had the effect of pressuring others to contribute. Jishin no shakaishi, 272.

137. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 282–283, 304–305. 138. Ibid., 274–275.

139. Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 79–80. For data on cash donations in tabular form, see hyō 2-13, Chūō bōsō kaigi, 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho, 101.

140. Kitagara, Jishin no shakaishi, 272–274, and Noguchi, Ansei Edo jishin,

179–181.

141. Kitahara, Jishin no shakaishi, 307–327. For the definition of girei, see 307, and for the links between segyō and okage-mairi, see 326–328.

142. “Ansei itsubō jishin kibun,” in NJS, vol. 5, supplement 2, part 1, 441–442.

143. Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 81–83, 86.

144. For documents detailing post-earthquake repairs, see NJS, vol. 5,

supplement 2, part 1, 166–176, and Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 84–88. For details on what was repaired when, see zu 2-17 and 2-18 in Chūō bōsō kaigi, 1855 Ansei Edo jishin hōkokusho, 118, 199.

145. Kitahara, “Saigai no shakaizō,” 86, 88–92.

 
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