Table of Contents:

Concluding Remarks

The life cycle assessment and carbon foot-printing methodologies can be applied to undertake comparative studies. These are important for decision making as they can relate different product options directly to then environmental impact. Comparative studies can be used in order to assess the viability of production in countries with alternative energy mixes; a country with a high proportion of fossil-fuel power plants will contribute to a higher CFP. They can also suggest new options for product design by comparing the choice of materials in sub-systems or modules in terms of then GHG-emissions. It is essential to include a full product life cycle in comparative CFP studies unless the function of the product is included in a partial CFP and all omitted processes from the system are identical for the compared products. Furthermore, when CFP-PCRs are adopted in comparative studies, the identical CFP-PCR shall be utilised for each of the products assessed. Finally, comparative CFP studies should use the identical functional units, system boundaries, descriptions of the data, criteria for the inclusion or exclusion of any inputs or outputs from the system and assumptions regarding the use or end-of-life stages.

This chapter has described the LCA methodology and the standards required to communicate the LCA result as an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD). It has further described the standards required to convert this information into the CFP, providing an overview of options for GHG-emissions reductions. The challenge is to feed this overview back to the product designer for use in the planning and design of low carbon product systems, subsystems, system elements and value chains. The decisionmaking process can become complex for larger systems. According to Systems Engineering, the process of bringing a system into being is by a stepwise approach starting with a specification of the needs and associated requirements to the life cycle performance of the systems, followed by trade-off analyses of alternative solutions for reduction of carbon emissions. Finally, the SE process considers ways to evaluate that in meeting the initial requirements, the product also incorporates the options for reducing carbon footprints in the value chain of the product.

Annex: Overview of ISO-standards for conducting LCA and transforming the results into Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) and Carbon Footprint of Products (CFP)

Table Al. Principles covered by the ISO 14060-standards .

ISO 14064-1:2019, Greenhouse gases—Part 1: Specification with guidance at the organisation level for quantification and reporting of GHG emissions and removals

Principles and requirements for designing, developing, managing and reporting organisation-level GHG inventories.

ISO 14064-2:2019, Greenhouse gases—Part 2: Specification with guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of GHG emission reductions or removal enhancements

Principles and requirements for determining baselines, and for the monitoring, quantifying and reporting of project emissions.

ISO 14064-3:2019, Greenhouse gases—Part 3: Specification with guidance for the validation and verification of GHG assertions

Requirements for verifying GHG statements related to GHG inventories, GHG projects, and carbon footprints of products.

ISO 14067:2018, Greenhouse Gases—Carbon footprint ofproducts (CFP)—Requirements and guidelines for quantification

Principles, requirements and guidelines for the quantification of the carbon footprmt of products. The aun of this document is to quantify GHG emissions associated with the life cycle stages of a product.

ISO TR 14069:2013, Greenhouse gases—Quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions for organisations—Guidance for the application of ISO 14064-1

Assists users in the application of ISO 14064-1, providmg guidelines and examples for improving transparency in the quantification of emissions and then reporting.

ISO 14026:2018, Environmental labels and declarations—Principles, requirements and guidelines for communication of footprint information

Principles, requirements and guidelines for: footprint communications for products addressing areas of concern relating to the environment; footprint communication programmes, as well as requirements for verification procedures.

ISO/TS 14027:2017, Environmental labels and declarations—Development of product category rules

Principles, requirements and guidelines for developing, reviewing, registering and updating PCR within a Type III environmental declaration or footprint communication programme based on life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO/TS 14067.

ISO 14044:2006, Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Requirements and guidelines

Covers two types of studies: life cycle assessment studies (LCA studies) and hfe cycle inventory studies (LCI studies). LCI studies are sumlar to LCA studies but exclude the LCIA phase.

ISO/TS 14071:2014, Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Critical review processes and reviewer competencies: Additional requirements and guidelines to ISO 14044:2006

Provides additional specifications to ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006. It provides requirements and guidelines for conducting a critical review of any type of LCA study and the competencies required for the review.

Al. Relationship between ISO 14067 and standards beyond the GHG management family of standards

Figure Al. Relationship between ISO 14067 and standards beyond the GHG management family of standards

(ISO 14067:2018, ISO, 2018c).

A2. Relationship among the ISO 14060 family of GHG standards (ISO 14064-2:2019, ISO, 2019a)

Figure A2. Relationship among the ISO 14060 family of GHG standards (ISO 14064-2:2019, ISO, 2019a).

References

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Fet, A M. and Skaar, C. 2006. Eco-labeling, product categoiy rules and certification procedures based on ISO 14025 requirements (6 pp). The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 11(1): 49-54.

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