BioElectroMagnetics: Human Safety and Biomedical Applications


AbbreviationsFoundational Aspects of Bio + Electro + MagneticsFoundations of electromagnetismThe hypothesisNatural and artificial electromagnetic fieldsNatural sourcesArtificial sourcesFieldsElectric fieldsMagnetic fieldsSignals, polarization, and harmonicsTheory of electromagnetic fieldsElectromagnetic wavesWave propagationWave–particle dualityNear-, intermediate-, and far-field regionsElectromagnetic fieldsElectromagnetic inductionElectromagnetic energyElectromagnetic spectrumSources of electric and magnetic fieldsDC sourcesMagnetosphereMagnetic resonance imaging (MR1)DC power systemsAC sourcesSingle-conductor sourceDual-conductor sourceLoop sourceThree-phase sourceSources of radiofrequency radiationWireless frequency allocationsGeneratorsTransmission pathsTransmission linesCoaxial cablesWaveguidesAntennasAntenna propertiesTypes of antennasFifth generation (5G) wireless systemsMillimeter wave (MMW) communicationsState of knowledgeSoft and green networkRadio Access Network (RAN)G core networkBeamformingSatellite and non-terrestrial networksInternet of ThingsThe questions of electromagnetic constraintReferencesFoundations of bioelectromagneticsThe hypothesisIntroductionBiophysical aspects of bioelectromagneticsInteraction mechanisms for electric and magnetic fieldsInduced fields and currentsElectrostimulationMagnetic biosubstancesFree radicalInteraction mechanisms for radio frequency radiationThermal mechanismsNonthermal/athermal mechanismsThermal- or nonthermal-based exposure limits?Cell membrane and the chemical linkThe role of cell membranesVoltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs)Biological and health effectsCells and membranesTissuesChanges in protein conformationChanges in binding probabilityVibrational states of biological componentsGenetic materialCarcinogenesisHypothesis of melatoninCancer mechanismsBrain and nervous systemBrainNeurological effectsBioelectromagnetic dosimetryMacrodosimetryInduced current densitySpecific absorption ratePower densityExposure-ratio metricDoseComposite metricThermal dosimetryMicrodosimetryImpact of frequencyImpact of dielectric constantToward health-based safety standardsReferencesExtremely Low Frequency FieldsExtremely low frequency field safetyThe hypothesisIntroductionSafety standards and guidelinesStandardization processIEEE standardICNIRP guidelinesExposure limitsPrecautionary exposure modelsPotential sourcesResidential areasPower systemsTransportation systemsDosimetryMeasurement techniquesElectric field measurementsMagnetic field measurementsTest and survey protocolExposure assessments and exposimetryOutdoor and indoor environmental surveysResidential exposureTransport systems exposurePersonal exposimetryField managementMitigation techniquesBuildingsPower systemsElectric vehiclesShielding techniquesActive shieldingPassive shielding by conductive materialsPassive shielding by ferromagnetic materialsShielding designReduction proceduresGeneralComputersReferencesHealth effects of exposure to extremely low frequency fieldsThe hypothesisIntroductionEpidemiological studiesOccupational environmentsGeneral public environmentsChildhood cancer and leukemiaAdult cancerNeurodegenerative diseasesReproductive health effectsSummary of epidemiological studiesExperimental studiesGenotoxicity and carcinogenicityCell functionsAnimal studiesClinical studiesPerceptionBrain and behaviorCardiovascular systemMelatonin releaseReproductive and development effectConcluding remarksReview studiesFuture researchReferencesRadio Frequency RadiationRadio frequency radiation safetyThe hypothesisIntroductionSafety standardsProcess of standardizationIEEE C95.1 standardFederal Communication Commission (FCC) guidelinesICNIRP guidelinesCompliances and restrictionsPrecautionary exposure modelsDosimetryWhole-body assessmentsIn-head assessmentsSources of local RFRAdult size headsChild size headsTissue and skin dosimetryExposure assessment and exposimetryExposure assessment approachesAssessment techniquesAssessment unitsSources of environmental RFRCellular base stationsBroadcast antennasWireless internetBluetooth devicesSmart electricity metersBaby monitoring systemsMicrowave ovens, heaters, and dryersMedical equipmentOther sourcesIndoor environmental RFRExposure in public placesExposures in residential placesExposures in transportation facilitiesSummary of resultsOutdoor environmental RFRMitigation approachesExposure from common sourcesExposure reductionFuture developmentHarmonizing exposure limitsG deployment policiesDosimetry knowledge gapReferencesHealth effects of exposure to radio frequency radiationThe hypothesisIntroductionEpidemiological studiesOccupational exposure studiesPublic exposure studiesINTERPHONE studyIARC statementCOSMOSCellular and animal studiesGenetic toxicologyCellular functionsAnimal studiesClinical studiesPerception and auditory responseOcular effectsBrain functionCardiac functionsMelatoninReproductive system and male fertilityState of the art reviewProtective measuresElectromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS)Sensitivity of childrenHypersensitivity of adultsConcluding remarksInternational and national expert group evaluationsInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Bio-Initiatives Working GroupCommittee on Man and Radiation (COMAR)World Health Organization (WHO)French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES)Advisory Group on Non-ionizing Radiation (AGNIR)Norwegian Institute of Public HealthSwedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (SCWLSR)Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET)Expert Panel report on a review of Safety Code 6Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA)Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR)National Toxicology Program (NTP)Future researchReferencesTherapeutic ApplicationsDiathermy therapyThe hypothesisIntroductionHistorical perspectiveLiterature reviewThermal mechanismsHeat stressThermal injuryThermotoleranceTherapeutic categoriesDiathermy modalitiesShort-wave diathermyMicrowave diathermyMMW and THz therapyDiathermy therapeutic applicationsPain managementRehabilitation practiceBone and tissue healingPossible side effects of EM energy and heatTissue physiology and response to heatCellular responsesImmunological effectsCardiovascular responsesNervous system responsesCarcinogenic effectsConcluding remarksRisk assessmentTrends in equipment developmentFuture researchReferencesHyperthermia therapyThe hypothesisIntroductionHistorical perspectiveEarly research workModern hyperthermiaPractical challengesA wealth of literatureBiophysical and practical rationaleHeat aloneHeat and radiationHeat and drugsHyperthermia in oncologyLocal hyperthermiaExternal local hyperthermiaIntraluminal local hyperthermiaInterstitial local hyperthermiaRegional hyperthermiaDeep regional hyperthermiaRegional perfusion hyperthermiaLocal regional hyperthermia or oncothermiaWhole-Body Hyperthermia (WBH)Extracellular hyperthermiaHyperthermia techniques and equipmentTechniquesRadio frequency (RF)MicrowavesExternal RF applicatorsCapacitive heatingInductive heatingHybrid heating systemsExternal radiative EM devicesSingle applicatorsMultielement army applicatorsInterstitial and intracavitary devicesNanotechnology-based sourcesHyperthermia with other modalitiesHyperthermia and radiationHyperthermia and chemotherapyHyperthermia and radiochemotherapyStatus and trendsTechnical and clinical challengesStandardizationConclusionReferencesAblation therapyThe hypothesisIntroductionProcedures and techniquesMinimally invasive proceduresAblation techniquesClinical applicationsLiverLungProstateKidneyBreastBoneCardiac diseasesRadio frequency ablation (RFA)Technical considerationsMechanismsElectrodes and approachesMultiple applicatorsLocalizationThermal-electrical modelingClinical advantages and applicationsCancer treatmentCardiac diseasesSnoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)LimitationsComplicationsMicrowave ablation (MWA)Technical considerationsMechanismsAntenna designsMultiple insertions and multiple antennasClinical advantages and applicationsTreating cancerCardiac diseasesMicrowave endometrial ablation (MEA)LimitationsComplicationsTrends and future researchImproved techniquesAblation in clinical practiceFuture researchReferencesDosimetry, Thermometry, and Medical ImagingElectromagnetic-thermal dosimetryThe hypothesisIntroductionPower deposition modelingTechniques for low frequenciesTechniques for radiofrequency radiationAnalytical techniquesNumerical techniquesThermoregulatory modelingThermal doseThermal measurementsBioheat transfer modelsPennes modelWissler modelStolwijik modelWeinbaum–Jiji modelBaish modelApplications of bioheat transfer modelsThermal therapy planning system (TTPS)Objectives and requirementsDevelopments in TTPSSoftware packagesStatus and trendsReferencesThermometry and medical imagingThe hypothesisIntroductionHistorical perspectiveInvasive thermometryThermoelectric thermometryThermistorThermometerThermographyNon-invasive thermometry and imaging techniquesUltrasound imagingApparatusAdvantages and limitationsTwo- to three-dimensional ultrasonographуMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)OperationAdvantages and limitationsMicrowave imagingTHz imagingCharacteristics of THz radiationTHz-ray systemChallengesTHz-ray computed tomography (CT)IR thermographyX-ray computed tomographyConventional CT scannersSpiral (helical) CT scannersMultislice CT scannersStatus and trendsReferencesElectromagnetic risk paradigmThe hypothesisIntroductionRisk assessmentScientific evidenceSafety standard programsStructured risk assessmentRisk perceptionPublic perception of riskFactors relevant to electromagnetic fieldsHealth consequences of risk perceptionRisk managementAnticipatory ethicsInvolving the publicPublic meetingsPrecautionary approachesPublic understanding of precautionary actionsRisk communicationRole of communication in risk assessmentMedia coverageRole of industryRole of the internetCommunication with childrenTrends and future researchChallenges and implicationsResearch and policyConcluding remarksReferences
 
Next >