Green Technology to Mitigate Global Water, Energy, and Environment
Md. Faruque Hossain
Plants take carbon dioxide (C02) and release oxygen (02) through photosynthesis, and the process maintains balance in the global environment [1,7,9]. Therefore, plants play a central role in environmental equilibrium. However, plants, despite their critical role, contribute significantly to form aerosol into the air. For plants to grow, their bodies need water to facilitate biochemical metabolism. The plants rely on cohesion-tension mechanisms to absorb the ground water in the soil via the roots [12,13]. The process of osmosis facilitates the movement of water via the xylems to the leaves. However, plants only use 0.5% of the absorbed water in the metabolism process [36,37]. They release the remainder 95.5% water into the air via stomatal cells in a process referred as transpiration [2,36]. This process is the largest case of groundwater loss, and it contributes to weather change because the water vapor contributes significantly to form aerosol into the air.
Thus, the current research proposes a technology that can be used to eliminate or reduce water loss by diverting the mechanism involved in transpiration by collecting the water vapor rather than allow its entry into the air. The proposed technology would transform the water vapor into both clean energy and portable water. Placing a static electricity creator plastic tank is a solution that has been proposed to trap the water vapor by using the force of static electricity to attract the water vapor. The logic behind the technology is the realization that water vapor contains both negative and positive charges as well as electrons. If there is to be an electrical force with a positive charge and the water molecules have an aggregate negative charge, the two forces end up pulling each other [10,11,17]. The positively charged side would pull the water vapor and direct it into a tank in which it can be treated for domestic use. Part of the collected water is to be subjected to an electrolysis process for clean energy (hydrogen) production that will release O, as a by-product. This byproduct could be useful in balancing the environment when released into the air.
The conducted calculations show that five standard oak trees can sufficiently meet the total energy and water needs of a small family in a year. With the level of ground water strata lowering rapidly and the global warming and global energy continuing to leave the Earth in a precarious situation, an immediate solution to these needs becomes necessary. If followed, the proposed solution has the potential to solve the global energy, water, and environmental crises threatening Earth’s survival.
MATERIAL, METHODS, AND SIMULATION
Static Electric Force Generation
This study proposes a model of creating Hossain Static Electric Force/Field (HSEF=fj) that will facilitate the capture of water from air and its consequence release by plants’ stomatal cells during the day. The mechanism in the proposed model uses the friction from the insulator in contact with the plastic tank and which pulls the water vapor down into the plastic tank [18,21]. When attempting to incorporate the HSEF into the plastic tank, performing abelian local symmetries calculation using the MATLAB® software enables one to consider the gauge field symmetry as well as the Goldstone scalar in relation to the longitudinal mode that the vector assumes [24,28]. Therefore, each particle Ta of the local symmetry that is spontaneously broken has a corresponding gauge field of Д" (a) with HSEF beginning to function at local U(l) phase symmetry [19,23,26]. Thus, the model constitutes of a complex scalar field Ф(а) with a static electric charge of q integrated with the electromotive (EM) field A'' (a). The expression of the model includes fj:
Assume that А > 0 but m2 < 0, which implies that Ф = 0 represents the local maximum that the scalar potential has with the minima forming a degenerate circle Ф =ф-*е'в, in which:
As a result, the scalar field Ф leads to a non-zero vacuum expectation value Ф * 0 that contributes in creating U( 1) symmetry that the magnetic field adopts [3,4,5]. The consequent breakdown causes a massless Goldstone scalar that stems from the complex field Ф(л) phase. However, in case of the local U(l) symmetry, Ф(л) not only covers the expectation value Ф because the .v-dependent variable in the dynamic Ф(х) field.
In confirming the mechanism applicable in static electricity force, this study employs polar coordinates in the applicable scalar field space. Therefore:
The redefinition of the field remains singular as Фи) = 0. Thus, this study did not use it in case of any theory with Ф Ф 0. However, it would suit in theories that are spontaneously broken because Ф(х) ф 0 is expected to be observed everywhere. In relation to real fields of ©U) and фг(х), the radial field фг is the only factor influencing the scalar potential:
Or in regard to the radial field that its Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV) causes to shift, Ф, (x) = V+ сг(л),
Concurrently, the covariant derivative Оиф comprises:
In confirming the creation of the static electric force (fjsef) and inclusion in the electric field attributes of the HSEF, the force is expanded in powers of the various powers together with their derivatives with emphasis being given to the quadratic part that illustrates the free particles,
The HSEF (fjfree) function provided is expected to propose an actual scalar particle with positive mass2 = Av2 that involves both AJx) and @(.v) fields for initiating the creation of a remarkable static electricity force in the plastic tank’s electric field as illustrated in Figure 8.1.
In-Site Water Treatment
The water that the plastic tank collects is the liquid form of the water vapor. No sedimentation, chlorination, and coagulation will be needed to clean it. Ultraviolet (UV) application/mixing physics and filtration would be sufficient in treating the water for it to meet the set US National Primary Drinking Water Standard code [14,34,35]. That constitutes the simplest way of treating water involving Solar Disinfection (SODIS) system in which one fills a transparent container with water and exposes it to full sunlight for a few' hours. Once the water temperature hits 50°C when subject to a UV radiation of approximately 320 nm, this accelerates the inactivation process
FIGURE 8.1 (a) The creation of a static electricity force, and (b) the mechanism involved in
converting static energy into an electromotive force of negative and positive charges, which gather the “static” electricity together to pull the w'ater molecules down.
FIGURE 8.2 The application of photo-physics radiation in purifying water that illustrates that once one applies ultraviolet (UV) radiation of 320 nm into water, it begins to disinfect the microorganisms the moment the temperature hits 50°C.
that immediately causes thorough bacteriological disinfection. The treated water can then be used for domestic purposes (Figure 8.2).
Clean Energy Production
Some amount of the water will be used in generating clean energy through electrolysis, a process of converting water into hydrogen energy. Rather than employ the traditional approach, this study proposes a direct water electrolysis system that is based on a new, integrated, and monolithic photo-electrochemical (PEC)/photo- voltaic (PV) device that Figure 8.4 illustrates. The device is similar to the GaInP2/ GaAs p/n, pin tandem cell device. In this device, the solid-state tandem cell is made up of a GaAs bottom cell that is linked to a GaInP2 top cell via the tunnel diode linkage. Whereas, the top phi GalnP, junction having a band gap of 1.83 eV tends to be designed to absorb the visible section of the solar spectrum. In case of the bottom p/n GalnP, junction having a band gap of approximately 1.42 eV, the junction absorbs the almost infrared section of the spectrum that is transmitted via the top junction for the excited radiant energy to conduct electrolysis as Figure 8.3 shows.
The optimal theoretical solar-to-electrical energy efficiency for the band gaps that are presently combined is to be calculated if the standard solid-state tandem cell in implementing the PEC Schottky-type junction is to be achieved at the top of the p/n junction. The consequence would be a PEC device that is voltage-biased and has an integrated PV device. Under illumination, the electrons move to the illuminated surfaces and the holes toward the ohmic contact to splitting the water [6,8,16]. On illumination, the water splits. For this to happen, light is the only input made to the PEC device. The />-GaInP2/GaAs that the study used were developed using atmospheric-pressure organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy. Such a method involves the top layer of the epitaxially cell, p-Ga0 52In0 48P (as p-GaInP2) that is 4.0 ± 0.5 pm thick. It is connected in series through a low-resistivity and cell-in tunnel junction
FIGURE 8.3 The clarification of electron-state hydrogen energy is achieved using the radiation emission of photon energy (ultraviolet [UV] light) having a band gap of 1.42 eV for the clarification for photo-electrolysis to achieve hydrogen that is in an excited state.
(TJ) to a GaAs p/n bottom cell achieved on a GaAs substrate for confirmation of the achievement of optimal results. As a result, the standard electrochemical and chemical procedures are employed  with a platinum catalyst being used to coat the surface of the samples . The generation of illumination on which the photoelectrolysis relies is to involve a fiber-optic illuminator that has a 150 W tungsten- halogen lamp. Measurements of a light irradiance levels at the surface of the surface involves mounting a calibrated PV-tandem cell into the electrode holder contained inside the cell as it applies when photoelectrodes are placed under the light irradiance measured before .
In case of the PEC/PV configuration, one has to supply the GaAs bottom cell with sufficient voltage for the configuration to function appropriately. The voltage will need to overcome energetic mismatch that the band edges of the GalnP, have with the water redox reactions [27,29,33]. Furthermore, any additional voltage that is necessary to
FIGURE 8.4 (a) Schematic diagram of the monolithic bias photoelectrochemical/ photovoltaic (PEC/PV) device, (b) Diagram of the idealized photoanode energy level for monolithic PEC/PV photoelectrolysis device.
overcome overvoltage losses that arise in hydrogen (H2) and 02 evolution reactions has to be factored also (Figure 8.4). In total, the photovoltage output approaches the thermodynamics associated with natural water splitting (1.23 V). These include polarization losses ца and pc that characterize anodic and cathodic processes, respectively. Figure 8.4b demonstrates an idealized energy-level diagram detailing the photolytic splitting of water using the device. In the illustrated process there are two photons together with one separate electron-hole pair. Initially, the light that is incident on the PEC/PV configuration gains entry to the broad band gap /;-GaInP2 layer that absorbs the more energetic photons. The process excites the electron hole and generates photovoltage Vphl, so that the less energetic photons gain entry via the GaInP2 and the GaAs bottom pin junction absorbs them to generate photovoltage Vph2 (Figure 8.4). One group of holes and electrons get recombined at the junction of the tunnel. Once the resultant photo voltage Vph = Vph, + V exceeds the one that photo-electrolysis require for this specific cell configuration, that will prompt it to drive the water at the semiconductor electrode and water at the counter electrode requiring only two photons to generate an electron in the external circuit, while only four electrons are to generate one H, molecule, which reflects clean energy generation.