Membrane Desalination: From Nanoscale to Real World Applications

DESALINATION NECESSITYDESALINATION PROCESSESThermal Desalination ProcessesDistillationMultistage Flash (MSF)Multieffect Distillation (MED)Vapor Compression (VC)Membrane DesalinationReverse Osmosis (RO)Forward Osmosis (FO)Electrodialysis (ED)Membrane Distillation (MD)MEMBRANE PREPARATION TECHNIQUESThin Film Composite (TFC)DESALINATION MEMBRANE SHAPES AND MODULESTubular ModulesSpiral-Wound ModulesHollow-Fiber ModulesPretreatmentREFERENCESMembrane Materials Design Trends: NanoadditivesINTRODUCTIONHydrophilicityFoulingPorosityPermeabilityRejectionRoughnessMechanical PropertiesGRAPHENE OXIDE NANOADDITIVESPreparationEffect on MorphologyEffect on PerformanceEffect on Mechanical PropertiesCARBON NANOTUBE (CNTS) ADDITIVESPreparationEffect on MorphologyEffect on PerformanceEffect on Mechanical PropertiesMechanism of ActionZEOLITE NANOADDITIVESZeolite PreparationEffect on Water Permeability and HydrophilicityFoulingEffect on MorphologyEffect on Mechanical PropertiesSILICA NANOPARTICLESPreparation of Functionalized SilicaEffect on Mechanical PropertiesEffect on MorphologyEffect on PerformanceMechanism of ActionMETAL OXIDES NANOPARTICLESPreparationCoprecipitation MethodSol-Gel MethodThermal DecompositionMicroemulsion ProcessEffect on Mechanicaf PropertiesEffect on Performance and HydrophilicityEffect on MorphologyMETAL SALT NPSSilver NPsPreparationEffect of Silver NPs on Membrane Characteristics and PerformanceCopper (Cu) NPsNANOCELLULOSE ADDITIVEPreparationEffect on Mechanicaf PropertiesEffect on MorphologyEffect on PerformanceOTHER NPSPreparation of Polyaniline (PANI)Chemical Synthesis (Oxidative Polymerization)Electrochemical SynthesisEffect on MorphologyCharacteristics and PerformanceACKNOWLEDGEMENTREFERENCESFunctionalization of Carbon-Based AdditivesINTRODUCTIONGRAPHENE-BASED ADDITIVESCARBON NANOTUBE - BASED ADDITIVESREFERENCESNanohybrid Graphene-Based Materials for Advanced Wastewater Treatment: Adsorption and Membrane TechnologyINTRODUCTIONSYNTHESIS PROCEDURESSynthesis of GONanohybrid GOPreparation of GO and Reduced GO (rGO) MixtureSynthesis of Fe3О4/rG0Preparation of GO with One-step UltrasonicationSynthesis of Magnetic Chitosan Functionalized with GOCHARACTERIZATIONSPREPARATION METHODS OF GO MEMBRANESFiltration-Assisted MethodCasting/Coating-Assisted MethodLayer-by-Layer Assembly MethodOther MethodsADSORPTION APPLICATION OF NANOHYBRID GOAdsorption IsothermsExamplesApplications of Nanohybrid GO MembranesCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESState of the Art and Perspectives in Membranes for Membrane Distillation/Membrane CrystallizationINTRODUCTION TO MEMBRANE DISTILLATION (MD) AND MEMBRANE CRYSTALLIZATION (MCr) TECHNOLOGIESPRINCIPLES OF MD TECHNOLOGYTransport Mechanisms in MDHeat Transfer in MDMass Transfer in MDPRINCIPLES OF MCr TECHNOLOGYFROM LABORATORY STUDIES TO LARGE-SCALE APPLICATIONSADVANTAGES AND STILL EXISTING LIMITATIONSMembranes for MD and MCrMembranes Materials: Traditional and EmergingMembrane Configurations and Membrane ModulesMembrane Fabrication TechniquesAdvances in Membrane Fabrication and ModificationEnvironmental Issues in Membrane FabricationAn Overview of Commercially Available Membranes Used in MDConclusions and PerspectivesACKNOWLEDGEMENTREFERENCESArtificial Water Channels: Toward Next-Generation Reverse Osmosis MembranesINTRODUCTIONNATURAL WATER CHANNELS -THE AQUAPORINSBIOASSISTED AQP-EMBEDDED MEMBRANESWHY ARE ARTIFICIAL WATER CHANNELS IMPORTANT?WHERE ARE WE NOW? WHERE ARE WE GOING IN THIS NEWBORN FIELD?Single Molecular ChannelsSelf-assembled Supramolecular ChannelsNanochannelsOUTLINE BEYOND STATE OF ARTCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESDesalination Membranes: Characterization TechniquesINTRODUCTIONMEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATIONSurface Morphology and Physical CharacteristicsPorous Structure CharacterizationElectron MicroscopySEMTransmission Electron Microscopy (ТЕМ)Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) MicroscopySurface Chemical CharacteristicsEnergy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX)X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR)X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD)Water Contact AngleZeta Potential Measurement Surface ChargeThermal and Mechanical PropertiesThermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)Tensile Strength TestMEMBRANE PERFORMANCEPermeation FluxMembrane Liquid Entry Pressure of Water (LEPw)Salt Reiection RateCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESCarbon Molecular Models for DesalinationINTRODUCTIONEXISTING MODELSGraphene and Graphene Oxide (GO)Carbon Nanotube (CNT)BiomimeticCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESVirtual Material Design: A Powerful Tool for the Development of High-Efficiency Porous MediaCHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE STRUCTURECOMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS IN POROUS MEDIAVIRTUAL MATERIAL DESIGN (VMD)SYNTHETIC MEMBRANE STRUCTURESVMD AND CFD SIMULATIONSCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESEstimation of Process Parameters in Industrial Membrane Manufacture Using Computational Fluid DynamicsINTRODUCTIONINVESTIGATION OF LIQUID - LIQUID DEMIXING IN POLYMER SOLUTIONS AND MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTIONNUMERICAL PREDICTION OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN CASTING MACHINESMODELING OF PHASE SEPARATIONCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESTowards Energy-Efficient Reverse OsmosisINTRODUCTIONENERGY CONSUMPTION OF RO PLANTSEnergy BreakdownIntake SystemsPretreatmentProduct Water DeliveryOther Processes and ServicesRO SystemRO MEMBRANES AND PLANT ENERGY CONSUMPTIONThin-Film Composite MembranesNanocomposite MembranesEmerging Membrane TypesMembrane FoulingCONFIGURATIONS OF RO SYSTEM TO MINIMIZE SECMultistage RO SystemsMultipass RO SystemsSplit-Partial Two-Pass SystemsHybrid Membrane ConfigurationTime-Varying Pressure Systems - Batch RO SystemsPUMPSHigh Flow Capacity Centrifugal PumpsPositive Displacement PumpsENERGY RECOVERY DEVICESSUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONSREFERENCESMembrane Fouling and Scaling in Reverse OsmosisINTRODUCTIONEFFECT OF FOULING AND SCALINGIncreasing Differential Pressure in Cross - Wound Fibers, or of Spacer Spiral Wound ElementsIncrease Hydraulic Resistance of the MembraneDecrease in Rejection Owing to Concentration Polarization in the Foul LayerFOULING TYPESParticulate FoulingSilt Density Index (SDI)Modified Fouling Index (MFI0.45)Modified Fouling Index (MFI - UF)MFI-UF at Constant FluxTransparent Exopolymer Particles (TEPs)Biological FoulingMonitoring the Biofilm DevelopmentMonitoring Biofouling PotentialAssimilable Organic Carbon (AOC)Biodegradable Dissolved Organic Carbon (BDOC)Bacterial Growth Potential (BGP)Performance RestorationOrganic foulingScaling in Reverse Osmosis SystemsScaling Compounds on the RO MembranesCalcium Carbonate ScalingCalcium Sulphate ScalingBarium Sulphate ScalingCalcium Phosphate ScalingMechanism of Scaling in Reverse OsmosisPrediction of ScalingScaling IndicesScaling Prediction with Computer SoftwareTechniques to Control ScalingAddition of Scale InhibitorsOperate at Low RecoveryAcid additionREFERENCESSustainable Development and Future Trends in Desalination TechnologyINTRODUCTIONFLEXIBLE INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTMANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT OF HYPERSALINE BRINE SOLUTIONS THROUGH USE OF LOW GRADE HEAT AND SOLVENT EXTRACTIONEFFECTS OF BRINE DISCHARGE AND METERING TRENDS ON DESALINATION PLANT CONSTRUCTIONENERGY EFFICIENCY, COST ANALYSIS, AND ROAD MAP TO SUSTAINABLE DESALINATIONCOMPARISON OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN DESALINATION BY CAPACITIVE DEIONIZATION AND REVERSE OSMOSISLATEST DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN MEMBRANE DESALINATIONAPPLICATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY FOR WATER DESALINATIONCHALLENGES SURROUNDING THE USE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY AS AN ENERGY SOURCECONCLUDING REMARKSREFERENCESTerminology
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