Urban Agroecology: Interdisciplinary Research and Future Directions

I. IntroductionII. Agroecology: A Brief History, Key Terms, and PrinciplesThe ScienceThe PracticeThe Social MovementIII. Agroecology for Sustainable Urban Food Systems:Developing an Urban AgroecologyUrbanization and Urban AgroecosystemsA Brief History of the Development of Urban AgroecologyAgroecological Principles and Practices Applied to Urban AgroecosystemsSocio-Political Dimensions of Urban Agroecological SystemsIV. Looking Forward: Elucidating Social-Ecological Complexity in Urban Agroecological SystemsREFERENCESAn Expanded Scope of Biodiversity in Urban Agriculture, with Implications for ConservationIntroductionMethodsSystematic Literature ReviewData Extraction and AnalysesGeneral FindingsBiodiversity AccountsPlantsInvertebratesBirdsMammalsReptilesAmphibiansSoil MicrobesFishConsideration of Space and ScaleHuman Engagement in Biodiversity Conservation through Urban AgricultureInformation Gaps and Future DirectionsConclusionsREFERENCESComplex Ecological Interactions and Ecosystem Services in Urban AgroecosystemsIntroductionLocal and Landscape Drivers of Herbivore, Natural Enemy, and Pollinator Communities and TraitsHerbivoresNatural EnemiesPollinatorsLocal and Landscape Impacts on Ecological Networks and Ecosystem ServicesNatural Enemy and Herbivore Interactions and NetworksPollinator and Plant Interactions and NetworksChallenges and Opportunities for Ecological Research in Urban AgroecologyThe Urban Agroecology FrameworkExperimental ManipulationIncorporating Traits into Urban Ecological NetworksBiodiversity Influences on Food ProductionConclusionsREFERENCESClimate Factors and Climate Change in Urban AgroecosystemsIntroductionImpacts of Climate Factors on Ecological Dimensions of Urban Agroecosystems: Cropping Systems, Ecosystem Functions, and Ecosystem Service Providing AnimalsImpacts on Urban Crop SystemsPollinators and PollinationPests, Natural Enemies, and Pest RegulationSoil-Based Ecosystem FunctionsImpacts of Climate Change on Social Dimensions of Urban Agriculture: Human-Centered Benefits, Agroecosystem Management, and AdaptationChanges in Cultural Services Related to Climate FactorsAdaptation to Changes in Climate through Agroecosystem ManagementConclusion: Climate, Climate Change, and Urban AgroecologyAcknowledgmentsREFERENCESRestoring Soil and Supporting Food Sovereignty across Urban-Rural Landscapes: An Interdisciplinary PerspectiveIntroductionUrbanization, Soil, and Food SystemsHistory and Classification of "Urban" SoilsDefining UrbanizationSoil and Food Systems: Linking Urban and RuralHow Urbanization Changes Soil Properties and Ecosystem ServicesLand Commodification, Soil Heterogeneity, and ConvergenceCase Study: Community Gardens in the California Central CoastCapital Production and Patterns of ContaminationLand Use and Landscape FragmentationAltered Ecosystem ServicesAddressing the Tw in Challenges of Soil Degradation and Diminished Food Sovereignty across Urban-Rural SystemsBuilding Healthy Soils in Urbanized LandscapesRestoring Soil Organic MatterIncorporating Practitioner or Traditional KnowledgeCity-Region and Urban-Rural: A Systems ApproachConclusionsREFERENCESUrban Foraging: Where Cultural Knowledge and Local Biodiversity MeetIntroductionUrban Biodiversity as a Prerequisite for Collecting Edible SpeciesUrban Foraging: A Practice That Offers Multiple Social-Ecological BenefitsApproaches of Urban Foraging StudiesPractical ImplicationsConclusionsREFERENCESAgroecology as Public Health: The Island Example of TasmaniaPauline MarshIntroductionTasmanian Agriculture, Agroecology, and Community GardeningPublic Health and Therapeutic Landscapes TheoryCase Studies: Exploring Four Community GardensA Healthy Community around the Goodwood GardenRoyal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens Community Food Garden with Trauma SupportDIGnity Supported Community GardeningEdible PrecinctConclusionsREFERENCESFrom Individual Seeds to Collective Harvests: Urban Agroecology as Political ActionIntroductionMethodologyAction Research in Theory and Practice in Urban AgroecologySurveysExperiences of Resistance and Change from Urban Farmers in Southern MexicoDifferent People, Different Reasons to Plant a SeedUrban Farmers and PoliticsFuture Directions for Urban Agroegocology: Transition from Individual Practices to Wider Political Change and Collective Action in Urban ContextsThe Power of Belonging to a NetworkMaintaining Hope to Take ActionUnderstanding Actor Positionality and Intersectionality in Urban AgricultureThe Contribution of Urban Agroecology: Politics Mixed with PracticeNegotiating with GovernmentsConclusionREFERENCESSurveying the Landscape of Urban Agriculture's Land Politics: Civic, Ecological, Heritage-Based, Justice-Driven, and Market-Oriented FieldsIntroductionUrban Agriculture Land Politics as Urban Political AgroecologyFields of Land PoliticsCivicEcologicalHeritage and HomeJustice-drivenMarket-orientedConclusionsREFERENCESCo-Producing Agro-Food Policies for Urban Environments: Toward Agroecology-Oriented Local Food SystemsIntroductionUrban Agroecology in SpainThe Role of Cities in Bringing Agroecological Experiences to ScalePolitical Agroecology and the Debate on ScalingAgroecology, Cities and Food PoliciesFour Years of Urban Food Policies in Spain from an Agroecological PerspectiveAgroecology-Oriented Urban Food Policies in 13 Spanish Cities:Multi-Stakeholder Processes in the Construction of Two Urban Food Strategies in SpainAgroecological Transitions in Urban Contexts: From Agroecological Experiences to Agroecology-based Local Agri-food SystemsUp-Scaling Agroecology in Urban Environments?Setting Up Agroecology-based Local Agri-food Systems and the Rural-Urban AllianceA Plural Vision of the Social Ecosystem of Food ChangeConclusions: Food Systems Agroecological Transitions Will not Be Possible without Involving Urban EnvironmentsAcknowledgementsREFERENCESHolistic Pedagogies for Social Change: Reflections from an Urban Agroecology Farmer TrainingLand AcknowledgementIntroductionBAFT: A Case Study in Politicized Urban Agroecology EducationGuiding Pedagogies and DidacticsCritical PedagogyHumanizing PedagogyConstructivist PedagogyKey Curriculum ConceptsValues-Centered CurriculumThe Relational over the TechnicalDecolonial FrameworkGender and SexualityHonoring Queer Identities within the ClassroomSpirituality and MysticismBeyond the CourseMobilization Phase Design and ImplementationChallenges and Future Directions for BAFTRecommendations for Urban Agroecology EducatorsThe Need for Politicized Urban Agroecology EducationEducational Tactics to Support Politicized Urban Agroecology EducationProgrammatic Tactics to Support Politicized Urban Agroecology EducationConclusionsAcknowledgmentsBIBLIOGRAPHYGrowing Together: Participatory Approaches in Urban Agriculture ExtensionIntroductionOverview of Extension and Its Involvement in Urban AgricultureContext of Urban Agriculture ExtensionUrban Agriculture Extension in PracticeEducationResearchConclusionsAcknowledgmentsREFERENCESHow to Study the Ecology of Food in the City: An Overview of Natural Science MethodologiesA Focus on EcologyUnderstanding the Ecosystem - What is Urban Agriculture?Reviewing Ecological Concepts - What Kinds of Questions to AskSuccession-Legacy Effects, Path DependenceEcosystem Ecology - Soil, Water and NutrientsPopulation and Community EcologyHabitat Fragmentation and Connectivity - What's Inside and Outside the GardenBiodiversity and Ecosystem ServicesTranslating Methods from EcologySampling BiodiversityPopulation and Community EcologyEcosystem EcologySpatial EcologyRelevant DatasetsMethodological Issues and Next StepsConclusionsREFERENCESNavigating Urban Agroecological Research with the Social SciencesIntroduction: Urban Agroecology and Social ScienceFrom Value Neutrality to Reflexive PraxisLineages Through Which Social Science Research “Comes to Life” in Political AgroecologyDevelopment StudiesAgrarian, Peasant, and Society-Environment StudiesFeminismsEnvironmental Justice and MovementsIndigenous Food SovereigntyUrban Agroecology as a Critical and Reflexive Social Science PraxisREFERENCESAgroecological Transformations in Urban Contexts: Transdisciplinary Research Frameworks and Participatory Approaches in Burlington, VermontIntroductionGeographic and Research ContextAn Urban and Peri-Urban Agroecological FrameworkAgroecology - Definitions and PrinciplesHow We Conceptualize AgroecologyParticipatory Action ResearchOur Conceptualization of PARA Transdisciplinary Research ApproachPrinciples-Based Evaluation and AgroecologyAgroecology Principles and Landscape DesignCultural Ecosystem Services and Relational ValuesThe Sites and the PartnersWhy Urban Agroecology in Vermont?The ProcessPreflectionDecision PointFirst Research Cycle: Selected ResultsIdentification of AE Principles of InterestAssessing Agroecology at the Intervale CenterDiscussionNext Steps in the PAR ProcessLessons/ConclusionsAcknowledgmentsREFERENCESMultidimensional Challenges in Urban Agricultural ResearchIntroductionMethodsThe Community/Academia Dichotomy: Conflicting or Complementary Goals?Extractive or Additive?Community Research Needs: What are UA Practitioners Asking for?How are Researchers Responding?Multidimensional Challenges in UA/UAE ResearchResearch Challenges from an Academic PerspectiveResearch Challenges from a Community Partnership PerspectiveThematic Review of ID/TD Research in UATD/ID Literature ReviewUA Researcher SurveyPARticipating in Urban Agroecology: A Research-Practice Ethical FrameworkStruggling with PARA Framework within a FrameworkEthics within UA ResearchConclusions/Future DirectionsConcluding and Moving Forward with UAE ResearchREFERENCESIntroductionFuture Directions for Urban AgroecologyIntegrate Participants in Research, From Design Through DisseminationAddress Global Environmental ChangeBridge the Urban-Rural Divide Around Public Interest in AgricultureUnify Multiple Fields of Study and New Methodological ApproachesFinal Thoughts
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