Analysis of industrial CO2 emissions and influencing factors A case study of Zhejiang Province

In recent years, the issue of global warming has attracted international attention. As a responsible developing country, China has taken active measures to deal with climate change, and all regions have also responded positively. As a developed coastal province in the east, Zhejiang Province attaches great importance to climate change work. Under the unified guidance of the state, in 2007, the Zhejiang Provincial Climate Change Leading Group was set up, and the leading group set up an office to undertake the daily work of tackling climate change. In 2010, Zhejiang Province announced the Zhejiang Province Climate Change Program, which clarified the goals, principles and policy measures for Zhejiang Province to respond to climate change in 2012. According to the Zhejiang Province Climate Change Program, energy consumption in the industrial sector is the main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among the 385 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted by Zhejiang Province in 2007, the proportion of energy activities and industrial production sectors was as high as 93.55%. Therefore, systematic accounting and statistical analysis of carbon emissions from different sectors of the industrial sector is the basis for understanding the status, development trends and levels of GHG emissions in the industrial sector in Zhejiang Province.

This chapter takes the industrial sector of Zhejiang Province as the research object, based on the second economic census data of Zhejiang Province, measures and counts the GHG emissions of 37 industrial sectors in Zhejiang Province in 2008; to understand the location of Zhejiang Province in the same provinces and countries. For the horizontal comparison of relevant indicators with Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Guangdong and the whole country; for the understanding of the development trend of greenhouse gases in the industrial sector of Zhejiang Province, the vertical comparison with the first economic census data of Zhejiang Province in 2004. In addition, the factor decomposition method is used to quantitatively measure the relative contribution of different factors such as economic output, energy intensity, industrial structure, industrial scale and energy structure to the growth of industrial GHGs in Zhejiang Province.

The structure of this chapter is arranged as follows. The first section defines and explains the main concepts, calculation methods and data sources of the research. The second section accounts for the GHG emissions of the industrial sector in Zhejiang Province, and compares its basic distribution and characteristics horizontally and vertically. The third section identifies and decomposes the factors affecting industrial GHG emissions, and finally the conclusions and countermeasures are presented.

Main concepts, calculation methods and data sources

Concept and scope of research

According to the scope of preparation of GHG inventories in the Initial National Information Circular on Climate Change, the GHGs calculated in this chapter mainly include the following three types: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N,O), and emissions are converted to the corresponding CO, equivalents.

In view of the small proportion of GHG emissions of industrial enterprises below the scale, the scope of research is defined as industrial enterprises above designated size. In addition, for ease of analysis and reading, this chapter divides the 37 industrial sectors in the economic census into 12 major categories: mining, food and beverage, textile and leather products, wood furniture and paper, petroleum processing, chemical industry, rubber and plastic products industry, non-metal products industry, metal products industry, equipment machinery and instrument industry, power industry, and other industries. The specific classification criteria are detailed in Table 7.1.

Measurement

GHG emissions are generally measured by fossil energy consumption according to the preparation method of GHG inventories in the Initial National Information Circular on Climate Change, the GHG emission coefficient of different fossil energy consumption published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and announced in the China Energy Statistics Yearbook. The low calorific value of different fossil energy sources and the CO, emissions caused by fossil energy consumption activities can be calculated according to the following formula:

Here, CO, represents the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions; subscript I represents the 19 fossil energy products involved in the Zhejiang Economic Census; £, is the total energy consumption of the subsector; Ci represents

12 major industries

Sector code

Sectors

Mining industry

6

Coal mining and washing industry

7

Oil and gas extraction industry

8

Ferrous metal mining and dressing industry

9

Non-ferrous metal mining and dressing industry

10

Non-metallic mining and dressing industry

11

Other mining industry

Food & beverage industry

13

Agricultural and sideline food processing industry

14

Food manufacturing

15

Beverage manufacturing

16

Tobacco industry

Textile & leather products industry

17

Textile industry

18

Textile and garment, shoes and hat manufacturing

19

Leather, fur, feather (velvet) and its products

Wood furniture manufacturing industry

20

Wood processing and wood, bamboo, rattan, brown, grass products industry

21

Furniture manufacturing

22

Paper and paper products industry

23

Copying of the printing industry and recording media

24

Culture and education sporting goods manufacturing

Petroleum processing industry

25

Petroleum processing, coking and nuclear fuel processing

Petrochemical industry

26

Chemical raw materials and chemical products manufacturing

27

Pharmaceutical manufacturing

28

Chemical fiber manufacturing

Rubber & plastics industry

29

Rubber products industry

30

Plastic products industry

Non-metallic industry

31

Non-metallic mineral products industry

Metal products industry

32

Ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry

33

Non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry

34

Metal products industry

Equipment machinery and instrument industry

35

General equipment manufacturing

36

Special equipment manufacturing

37

Transportation equipment manufacturing

39

Electrical machinery and equipment manufacturing

40

Communications equipment, computers and other electronic equipment manufacturing

(continued)

Table 7.1 (Cont.)

12 major industries

Sector code

Sectors

41

Instrumentation and culture, office machinery manufacturing

42

Crafts and other manufacturing

Electricity Other sectors

44

Electricity and heat production and supply

43

Waste resources and waste materials recycling industry

45

Gas production and supply industry

46

Water production and supply industry

Note: Please refer to the division in Fisher-Vanden et al. (2004) for the division criteria for the 12 major categories.

the default CO2 emission factor, the unit is kilogram CO2/kcal; /), represents the average low calorific value of Chinese energy products, in kilocalories/kg or kilocalories/cubic meter. Among them, C^Dj is called the carbon dioxide emission coefficient. The emission of other GHGs is calculated by the same formula (7.1), and is not listed here. The CO, emission factors of various energy products are shown in Table 7.2.

Data sources

The energy consumption of industrial enterprises above designated size and the industrial output value of industrial enterprises above designated size are from the first economic census data of Zhejiang Province in 2004 and the second economic census data of Zhejiang Province in 2008. Among them, the total industrial output value in 2004 was reduced to the constant price in 2008 using the “price index of industrial enterprises above designated size of Zhejiang Province,” and the price deflator was from the 2009 Zhejiang Statistical Yearbook.

The energy consumption of industrial enterprises above designated size in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Jiangsu and the whole country, and the industrial output value of industrial enterprises above a designated size are from the main data bulletin of the second national economic census in 2008, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and the country’s total population at the end of the year, from the 2009 China Statistical Yearbook.

Industrial greenhouse gas emissions in Zhejiang Province

Total amount and distribution of industrial greenhouse gas emissions

Using the calculation method of formula (7.1) and the second economic census data of Zhejiang Province in 2008, the carbon dioxide (CO,) emissions

Table 7.2 CO, emission factors of major energy products

Energy products

Unit

Reference index coefficient

Default value of carbon content (kgC/GJ)

A verage low calorific value (kcallkg). ( kcalltn,)

CO2 emission coefficient (kg CO4 kg), (kg CO,hn3)

Raw coal

Ton

0.7143

25.8

5,000

1.980

Washed coal

Ton

0.9

25.8

6,300

2.495

Other coal

washing

Ton

0.2-0.7

25.8

2,000

0.792

Briquette

Ton

O.5-O.7

26.6

5,000

2.042

Coke

Ton

0.9714

29.2

6,800

3.048

Other coking products

Ton

1.1-1.5

25.8

6,800

2.693

Coke oven gas

Ten cubic meters

5.714-6.143

12.1

4,000

0.743

Blast furnace gas

Ten cubic meters

1.286

70.8

900

1.359

Other gas

Ten cubic meters

1.7-12.1

12.1

1,250

0.232

Natural gas

Ten cubic meters

11-13,3

15.3

9,310

2.187

Liquefied natural gas

Ton

1.7572

17.5

12,000

3.224

Crude

Ton

1.4286

20.0

10,000

3.070

Gasoline

Ton

1.4714

18.9

10,300

2.988

Kerosene

Ton

1.4714

19.5

10,300

3.083

Diesel

Ton

1.4571

20.2

10,200

3.163

Fuel oil

Ton

1.4286

21.1

10,000

3.239

Liquefied petroleum gas

Ton

1.7143

17.2

12,000

3.169

Refiner}' dry gas

Ton

1.5714

15.7

11,000

2.651

Other petroleum products

Ton

1-1.4

20.0

10,000

3.070

Note: Data in the third column "Reference index coefficient" are derived from the China Energy Statistical Yearbook: the fourth column, “Carbon content default value,” is derived from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Volume 2 Energy, tables 2.2 and 2.3: the fifth column of "average low calorific value" comes from the China Energy Statistical Yearbook and the National Development and Reform Commission's Response to Climate Change "Announcement on Announcement of 2009 China's Regional Power Grid Default Emission Factors" (July 2, 2009).

of industrial enterprises above a designated size in Zhejiang Province were about 354 million tons, methane (CH4) emissions are 0.64 million tons and nitrous oxide (N,O) is about 0.47 million tons. The total amount of GHGs is about 356 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. The proportion of carbon dioxide is 99.57%, which indicates that carbon dioxide is the main source of GHG emissions in the industrial sector of Zhejiang Province.

Distribution of industrial greenhouse gas emissions in Zhejiang Province (2008)

Figure 7.1 Distribution of industrial greenhouse gas emissions in Zhejiang Province (2008)

From the distribution of industrial GHG emissions (see Figure 7.1), the top five industries are: power industry emissions (164.248 million tons), petroleum processing industry (794.24 million tons), metal products industry (304.62 million tons), non-metallic products industry (24.416 million tons) and chemical industry (20.725 million tons); the above five industries accounted for 90% of the province’s above-scale industrial emissions, of which the power industry accounted for the highest proportion, reaching 46%. Other industry sectors, such as rubber and plastic products, food and beverage, mining, and other industries, account for a small proportion.

Specific to the 37 industrial sectors, the top five sectors of emissions are: electricity and heat production and supply (164.248 million tons), petroleum processing, coking and nuclear fuel processing (794.24 million tons), ferrous metal smelting and the rolling processing industry (274.97 million tons), the non-metallic mineral products industry (24.416 million tons) and the chemical raw materials and chemical products manufacturing industry (171.43 million tons); the above five departments accounted for 88% of the province’s industrial sector above a designated size. The main GHG emission data of 37 industrial sectors can be found in Table 7.3.

 
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