MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEED QUALITY

Table of Contents:

11.7.1 CROPPING HISTORY

The cropping history of field needs consideration while selecting for seed production to avoid the volunteer plants. Cropping histoiy is inspected in first field inspection of certification program. The cropping histoiy criteria for various seed crops are given in Table 11.2.

11.7.2 SEED SOURCES

The certification process needs one or more relevant evidence to verify the quality of initial seed lot at the time of application scrutiny and/or during

Crops

Land requirement criteria

Bailey variety and hybrid, rice variety and hybrid, wheat variety and hybrid

1. Preceding one season

Baira variety and hybrid, common millet, barnyard millet, finger millet, Italian millet. Kodo millet, little millet, maize open-pollinated varieties, hybrids, synthetics, composites. Sorghum variety, and hybrid

2. Land flee of volunteer plants in previous season

Black gram. Bengal gram, cowpea. green gram. French bean (Rajmash), horse gram. Kesari. lablab. lentil, moth bean, peas, red gram

Castor variety and hybrid, linseed. Niger, safflower, sesame

Soybean. Mustard. Niger. Taramira

Cotton variety and hybrid, jute

Berseem. Buffelgrass. clover, Dharaf grass, forage sorghum, guinea glass, Lucerne, marvel grass, oats, rice bean. Sudan grass, Napier grass and hybrid. Setaria grass, stylo, teosinte

Amarantlius. ash gourd, asparagus, beet, bhindi. bitter gourd variety and hybrid, bottle gourd variety and hybrid, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, carrot variety and hybrid, celery, chow-chow, cucumber variety and hybrid, chilies. fenugreek, French bean (Rajmash), garlic. Guar. Indian squash. Knol-kliol, lettuce, long melon, muskmelon variety and hybrid, onion (aggregate) variety and hybrid, onion variety and hybrid, parsley, peas, pumpkin, variety and hybrid, ridge gourd variety and hybrid, radish variety & hybrid, rattail radish, snake gourd, Snap melon, spinach, sponge gourd variety and hybrid, winter squash variety and hybrid. Yam

Groundnut

1. Preceding two seasons

2. Land in which crop is grown in Preceding two seasons were of same land and variety and of equivalent or higher class and are eligible for certification

TABLE 11.2 (Continued)

Crops

Land requirement criteria

Bird wood grass. Buffelgrass. Dharaf grass. Dinanatli grass, marvel grass, Setaria grass, stylo

1. Preceding five seasons

2. (Foundation stage alone)

3. Land must not be used for cultivation of the same crop

Sunflower variety and hybrid

1. Preceding one year-

2. Land in which the crop is grown in preceding year- was of same kind or variety and of equivalent or higher class and eligible for certification

Potato, true potato seed

1. Land infested with diseases like wart, brown spot, and common scab must be avoided

Pointed gourd, little gourd, sweet potato, tapioca, taro

1. Land avoided if preceding crop residue is found and drainage from another field planted with same crop.

2. Swampy, low lying, and over shaded areas to be avoided.

Source: Reprinted from IMSCS, 2013.

first inspection. These evidence may be certification tags, seals, labels, seed containers, purchase records, sale records, etc., from producer of certified seed.

  • 11.7.3 ISOLATION AND INTERCROPPING
  • 11.7.3.1 ISOLATION

The minimum isolation prescribed in IMSCS is mandatory to avoid chances of genetic contamination due to the presence of other varieties, impure same variety, diseased plants in some cases, cross-compatible crops, and plants species. The minimum isolation requirements for various crops as per classes of seeds are given in Table 11.3.

11.7.3.2 INTERCROPPING

Intercropping is seed production is, in general, not recommended. However, in certified seed production of oilseeds and pulses intercropping is allowed with the following conditions (IMSCS, 2013).

  • • Intercropping is applicable to certified seeds class of pulses and oilseeds. The foundation seed crop should strictly be a single crop.
  • • Any other types of cropping system or pattern are not permitted.
  • • The crops selected for intercropping should have a different genus and preferably different maturity.
  • • Only basic crop pertaining to oilseeds or pulses can be registered for certification and companion crop cannot be certified.
  • • The plating ratio of seed crop and companion crop must be uniform throughout the field.
  • • Certification agencies will prepare a list of crop combinations for respective states taking into account the following factors while selecting any crop combinations.
  • a) The companion crop should not hamper intercultural operation required for a seed crop.
  • b) It should not compete for nutrients and moisture or starve seed crop.
  • c) It should not mature simultaneously with seed crop or should not carry weed seeds that may mix with seed crop.

Distance (meters)

Crops (Fields from which seed crop must be separated are presided within brackets)

3

Cereals and Millets

Barley, millets (Common. Fingert. Italian. Kodo. Little. Barnyard), oats, rice, triticale, wheat

5

Oilseeds

Groundnut, soybean

Pulses

Black gram. Bengal gram, cowpea. green gram, horse gram. Kesari. lablab. lentil, moth bean

Fiber crops

Cotton hybrid (between parent plots), jute (other species)

Vegetables

Cluster bean. French bean. (Rajmash). fenugreek, garlic, lesser yam, multiplier onion, pea. potato, sweet potato, tapioca

10

Forages

Buffel grass. Dharaf grass, Dinanatlr grass. Guinea grass, marvel grass, Napier grass

20

Forage legumes

Rice bean

Vegetables

Coccinia. pointed gourd

25

Oilseeds

Linseed. Mustard (self-compatible types)

Forages

Indian clover, stylo

Vegetables

Lettuce, tomato

30

Fiber crops

Cotton variety and hybrids, jute

50

Oilseeds

Mustard (self-compatible types). Sesame, Taramira

Vegetables

True potato seed

100

Cereals and millets

Barley hybrids, rice hybrids, sorghum, wheat hybrids

Pulses

Red gram variety and hybrid

Vegetables

Brinjal. tomato hybrids

Cereals and millets (seed crop infected by loose smut)

Barley variety and hybrid (loose smut infection), oats (loose smut infection), wheat variety and hybrids (loose smut infection)

150

Cereals and millets

Bajra variety and hybrids, maize hybrids, composites, synthetics, sorghum hybrids

Distance (meters)

Crops (Fields from which seed crop must be separated are presided within brackets)

200

Oilseeds

Niger, safflower, sunflower

Forages

Setaria grass

Vegetables

Amaranthus. brinjal hybrids, bhindi, capsicum

300

Cereals and millets

Maize hybrids (different kernel color)

Oilseeds

Castor variety and hybrids

Vegetables

Asparagus, celery, celeriac. parsley

400

Cereals and millets

Maize inbred, maize single cross, sorghum (Johnson grass. Forage sorghum)

Oilseeds

Sunflower hybrids

500

Vegetables

Pumpkin, summer squash, winter squash, cucumber, pointed gourd, ridge gourd, snake gourd, sponge gourd, wax gourd, bitter gourd, bottle gourd. Chayote, Indian squash. Long melon, snap melon, muskmelon. watermelon, onion (OP variety and hybrids)

600

Cereals and millets

Maize inbred (different kernel color, texture)

800

Vegetables

Carrot variety and hybrids

1000

Vegetables

Bitter gourd hybrid, bottle gourd hybrid, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower. Chinese cabbage, cucumber hybrid, garden beet. Knol-khol. muskmelon hybrid, pumpkin hybrid, ridge gourd hybrid, radish, rat-tail radish, sponge gourd hybrid, spinach, summer squash hybrid, seedless hybrid watermelon, sugar beet, turnip, watermelon hybrid, winter squash hybrid

1600

Vegetables

Broccoli hybrid, cabbage hybrid, cauliflower hybrid, Chinese cabbage (fields of other var ieties of same species and same genera). Knol-khol hybrid, radish hybrids, turnip hybrids

Source: Reprinted fromlMSCS, 2013.

  • d) Companion crop should not have same pests and diseases
  • e) It should not interfere or create hindrances in the certification process.
  • 11.7.4 ROGUING AND WEEDING

Off-type or rogue is a plant that deviates morphologically from varietal characteristics described by breeder. Off-types and rogues play an important role in genetic purity maintenance. Removal of off-types and rogues from seed field before flowering is must to avoid cross-pollination (Table 11.4). Similarly, presence of cross-compatible weeds also deteriorates genetic quality. The weeding at appropriate stages is must to avoid cross-pollination.

11.7.5 IRRIGATION

Irrigation plays an important role in determining the physiological quality of seed. The proper irrigation of mother crop is an essential requirement of the seed crop. The critical irrigation stages of the crop must be identified to have better yield and quality of seed harvested.

11.7.6 NUTRITION

The viability and vigor are mainly dependent upon the nutrition of mother crop. Proper fertilizer application schedule must be followed as per recommendations based on soil tests. Improper nutrient application in terms of quantity and stage of the crop may result in nutritional unbalance and disorder affecting seed yield and quality.

11.7.7 BIOTIC STRESS MANAGEMENT

The seed crops, like the commercial crop, are prone to many diseases and pests and their management need to be done to have healthy crop and harvest. In seed crop, particularly, seed-bome diseases and pests impose a serious problem. There are designated diseases of seed crops listed under IMSCS that need to be kept under control. The list of designated diseases is given in Table 11.5.

Sr.

No.

Crop

Specifications

Vegetative

Flowering

Flowering, pod, earhead, boll formation stages

Maturity and harvest stages

1.

Rice

a) Short duration

-

85

-

95

b) Medium duration

-

105

-

120

c) Long duration

-

120

-

135

2.

Hybrid millets

a) Bajra

40

50

60

80

b) Maize

45

60

70

90

c) Sorghum

45

60

70

90

3.

Variety millets

a) Bajra

40

60

-

80

b) Maize

45

70

-

90

c) Parental maize

45

70

-

90

d) Sorghum

45

70

-

90

e) Finger millet

-

70

-

90

4.

Cotton

a) Suvin

-

75

-

105

b) TNB 1

-

75

105

125

c) Parental cotton

-

65

75

115

d) Hybrid

45

65

105

125

5.

Pulses

a) Black gram

-

40

-

55

b) Green gram

-

40

-

55

c) Covvpea

-

45

-

75

d) Covvpea P152

-

45

-

65

e) Red gram short duration

-

80

-

100

f) Long duration

-

120

-

150

g) Horse gr am

-

55

-

70

h) Bengal gram

6.

Oilseeds

a) Groundnut

-

60

-

90

Sr.

No.

Crop

Specifications

Vegeta five

Flowering

Floweling, pod, earhead, boll formation stages

Maturity and harvest stages

b) Sesame

40

60

-

75

c) Sunflower

40

60

-

75

d) Castor

-

50

-

90

e) Mustard

35

45

-

65

f) Soybean

-

50

-

90

g) Sunflower hybrid

40

55

65

80

li) Castor hybrid

40

50

70

90

7.

Vegetable

a) Tomato variety

50

70

-

90

b) Tomato hybrid

45

60

70

90

c) Brinjal variety

50

70

-

90

d) Brinjal hybrid

50

70

80

90

e) Bliindi

40

60

-

70

f) Chilies-K2

65

95

-

105

g) Cliilies

80

115

-

125

h) Beans

-

50

-

70

i) Pumpkin

60

80

-

100

j) Ash gourd

60

80

-

100

k) Bottle gourd

60

80

-

100

1) Snake gourd

45

60

-

75

m) Bitter gourd

45

60

-

75

n) Ribbed gourd

45

60

-

75

Note: 1. These dates are given for general guidance.

2. Considering the age of variety, the difference in agroclimatic conditions and other relevant factors. Assistant Director of Agriculture (Seed Certification) can alter and fix suitable inspection dates.

Source: Reprinted ffomIMSCS, 2013.

Crop

Designated diseases

Causal organisms

Max permitted (ХоУЮООО plants)

Foundation Seed

Certified Seed

Cereals

1.

Triticale

Loose smut

Ustlilago tritici

10

Ergot

Clanceps purpurea

2

4

2.

Wheat variety and hybrid

Loose smut

Ustlilago tiitici

10

50

Millets

1.

Bajra

Grain smut

Tolypospoiium penicillarie

5

10

Green ear

Tolyposponum sengalense

5

10

Ergot

Claviceps microcephala

5

10

2.

Bailey

Loose smut

Ustlilago mida

10

50

3.

Oats

Loose smut

Ustlilago avenae

10

50

4.

Sorghum

Grain smut/kernel smut

Sphaceotheca soighi

5

10

Head smut

Sphaceotheca reiliana

5

10

Pulses

1.

Cowpea

Ashy stem blight

Macrophomia phaseoli

10

20

Anthracnose

Coll etotiichum 1 indem uthianum

10

20

Ascochyta blight (for hill regions only)

Ascochyta sp.

10

20

2.

Green gram

Halo blight

Pseudomonas phasiolicola

10

20

Oilseeds

1.

Sesame

Leaf spot

Cercospora sesami

50

100

2.

Sunflower

Downy mildew

Plasmopara halstedii

5

50

Crop

Designated diseases

Causal organisms

Max permitted (No./lOOOO plants)

Foundation Seed

Certified Seed

Forage sorghum

1.

Forage sorghum

kernel smut/grain smut

Sphaceotheca sorghi

5

10

Clinton and head smut

Sphaceotheca reiliana

5

10

Vegetables

1.

Brinjal

Phomopsis blight

Phomopsis vexans

10

50

2.

Cabbage

Black leg

Leptosphaeha maculmis

10

50

Black rot

Xanthomonas campesths pv. Campesths

10

50

Soft rot

Erwinia carotovora

10

50

3.

Capsicum chilies

Anthracnose/die back/ ripe rot

Colletotiiclnim capsid

10

50

4.

Cauliflower

Leafblight

Alteniaha solani

10

50

Black leg

Leptosphaeha maculans

10

50

Black rot

Xanthomonas campesths pv. Campesths

10

50

Soft rot

Erwinia carotovora

10

50

5.

Celery

Leafblight

Alteniaha solani

10

50

Root rot

Phoma apiicola

10

50

6.

Chinese cabbage

Blackleg

Leptosphaeha maculans

10

50

Black rot

Xanthomonas campesths pv. Campesths

10

50

Soft rot

Erwinia carotovora

10

50

7.

Cluster bean

Anthracnose

Colletotnchum sp.

10

20

Ascochyta blight (for hilly areas only)

Ascochyta sp.

10

20

Crop

Designated diseases

Causal organisms

Max permitted (No./lOOOO plants)

Foundation Seed

Certified Seed

Bacterial blight

Xanth от ottas cyamopsidis

10

20

8.

French bean (Rajmash)

Bean mosaic

Macrosiphum pisi

10

20

Anthracnose

Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

10

20

Bacterial blight

Xanthomonas sp.

10

20

Ascochyta blight

Ascochyta phaseolonim

10

20

9.

Knol-khol

Black leg

Phoma lingum

10

50

Black rot

Xanthomonas campestiis

10

50

10.

Tomato

Ear ly blight

Alteivaiia solani

10

50

Tobacco mosaic virus

TMV

10

50

Leaf spots

Stemphylium solani

10

50

И.

Potato

Brown rot

Pseudomonas solanaceamm

none

3/ha

Lea fro 11 virus

Potato Vims 1

200

300

Soft rot

Erwinia carotovora

75

100

Virus

Solatium vims 14

200

300

Mild mosaic

Solatium vims 1, vims X, Potato latent virus and Potato mottle vims

200

300

12

Yam

Brown rot/ bacterial wilt

Pseudomonas sol anaceamm

None

None

Source: Reprinted from IMSCS, 2013.

11.7.8 HARVESTING

Best quality of seed can be harvested just after attaining physiological maturity. The maturity indices should be fine-tuned to maximize yield and quality of harvested seed.

11.7.9 THRESHING

Threshing is separation of seeds from plant or fruit on which it is borne. It is critical operation as it may cause physical injuries to seed and may affect germination and yield as well. Threshing can be done manually and mechanically.

11.7.10 SEED PROCESSING

Seed processing determines the final physiological and physical quality. Seed processing comprises of cleaning, diying, grading, treating, and other operations that improve seed quality. The screens are specific to different crops as per the size and shape of seeds. Typical contaminants namely, weed seeds, undersized seeds, damaged seeds, broken and shriveled seeds, straw, chaff, leaves, twigs, stones, soil particles, etc., are removed. The crop- specific screen aperture sizes are enlisted in Table 11.6.

TABLE 11.6 Top and Bottom Aperture Size and Shape of Screen for Seed Processing of Various Crops.

S. No.

Crop

Screen aperture size (mm) and shape

Top screen

Bottom screen

1

2

3

4

Cereal crops

1.

Barley:

2-rowed

6.50 r

2.30 s

6-rowed

6.50 r

2.10 s, 2.20 s

2.

Paddy:

Coarse grain or bold type

2.8s, 9.0 r

1.85 s

Medium slender

2.8s, 9.0 r

1.80 s

Fine or superfine

2.8s, 9.0 r

1.70 s

TABLE 11.6 (Continued)

S. No.

Crop

Screen aperture size (mm) and shape

Top screen

Bottom screen

1

2

3

4

3.

Wheat:

Г aestivum

6.00 r

1.80 s, 2.10 s, 2.30 s

T. durum

6.00 r

2.10 s, 2.30 s

4.

Triticale

6.00 r

2.10s

7.00 r

2.30 s

Millets

1.

Maize (other than popcorn)

10.50 r, 11.00 r

6.40 r, 7.00 r

2.

Popcorn

8.75 r

4.25 r, 4.75 r

3.

Sorghum

4.75 r

2.10 s, 3.50 r

4.

Pearl millet

3.25 r

1.30 r, 1.30 s, 1.40 r, 1.40 s, 1.60 r, 1.90 r

5.

Barnyard millet

3.25 r

1.40 s, 1.80 r

6.

Common millet

3.80 r

1.60 s

7.

Finger millet

3.25 r

1.40 s

8.

Italian millet

3.25 r

1.20 s, 1.30 r

9.

Kodo millet

3.80 r

1.60 s, 2.00 r

10.

Little millet

2.50 r

1.60 r

Pulses

1.

Black gram

5.00 r

2.80 s

2.

Bengal gram

9.00 r. 10.00 r

5.00 r, 5.50 r, 6.00 r

3.

Cowpea

7.00 r

3.50 r, 4.00 r

4.

Green gram

5.50 r

2.80 s, 3.20 s

5.

Indian bean (Sem)

8.75 r

4.75 s

6.

Lentil

7.00 r

3.20 s, 4.00 r, 4.75 r

7.

Pigeon pea (Arliar)

9.50 r

3.20 s, 4.00 r, 4.75 r

8.

Rajmash (French bean)

11.0 r

4.75 s

Oilseeds

1.

Castor

13.50 r

4.40 s, 6.00 r

2.

Rapeseed and mustard

2.75 r, 3.00 r, 3.25 r

0.90 s, 1.00 s, 1.10 s, 1.40 r

3.

Linseed

4.00 r

2.00 r

4.

Niger

3.20 r

1.20 s

S. No.

Crop

Screen aperture size (nun) and shape

Top screen

Bottom screen

1

2

3

4

5.

Rocket salad

3.20 r

1.10 s, 1.20 s

6.

Safflower

7.25 r

1.20 s

7.

Sesame

2.40 r

1.60 r, 1.90 r

8.

Soybean

8.00 r

4.00 s

9.

Sunflower

9.00 r

2.40 s

Fibers

1.

Cotton:

Fuzzy

14.30 r

5.20 s

Delinted

7.20 r

3.90 s

2.

Jute:

CapsuJaris

2.40 r

1.20 r, 1.60 r

Olitorius

2.00 r

0.80 r.1.00 r

Forages

1.

Berseem:

Diploid

2.00 r

1.00 s

Tetraploid

2.40 r

1.20 s

2.

Forage sorghum

4.00 r, 4.75 r

2.10 s

3.

Cluster bean

6.00 r

1.80 s

4.

Guinea grass

2.10 r

2.40*0.65 in

5.

Indian clover

2.10 r

2.40*0.80 ill

6.

Lucerne

2.50 r

0.70*0.70*0.70 m

7.

Oats

7.50 r

2.00 s

8.

Setaria grass

2.40 r

1.90 s

9.

Sudangrass

4.00 r

1.20 s, 1.30 s

Vegetable crops

Cucurbits

1.

Ash gourd

9.50 r

6.40 r

2.

Bitter gourd

11.00 r

6.50 r

3.

Bottle gourd

11.00 r

6.50 r

4.

Cucumber

8.00 r

2.00 r, 2.50 r

5.

Indian squash

9.50 r

6.40 r

6.

Long melon

5.00 s

1.00 r

TABLE 11.6 (Continued)

S. No.

Crop

Screen aperture size (mm) and shape

Top screen

Bottom screen

1

2

3

4

7.

Muskmelon

5.00 s

1.00 r

8.

Pumpkin

11.00 r

6.50 r

9.

Ridge gourd

9.50 r

6.40 r

10.

Snake gourd

9.50 r

6.40 r

11.

Snap melon

5.00 s

1.00 r

12.

Sponge gourd

9.50 r

6.40 r

13.

Summer squash

8.00 r

2.00 r

14.

Watermelon

6.00 r

1.80 s

Fruit vegetables

1.

Brinjal

4.00 r

0.80 s, 2.10 r

2.

Capsicum (sweet pepper)

4.00 r

0.80 s, 2.10 r

3.

Chili (hot pepper)

4.00 r

0.80 s, 2.10 r

4.

Okra

6.00 r

4.30 r

5.

Rat-tail radish

4.50 r

2.00 r

6.

Tomato

4.00 r

0.80 s, 2.10 r

Greens/leafy vegetables

1.

Asparagus

6.00 r

2.40 r

2.

Celery

1.80 r

0.40 s. 0.64x0.64 m

3.

Fenugreek (Methi): Large and medium

3.25 r

1.20 s

Small

2.10 r

0.69 x 0.69 m

4.

Lettuce

2.30 r

0.80 r

5.

Parsley

2.75 r

0.75 s

6.

Spinach beet

5.50 r

1.80 s, 1.85 s, 2.25 r

7.

Spinach:

Round seeded

5.00 r

2.75 r

Sharp seeded

8.00 r

2.50 r

8.

Coriander (All varieties)

4.25 r

2.5 s

Cole crops

1.

Cabbage

2.75 r

0.90 s

2.

Cauliflower

2.75 r

1.10s

3.

Broccoli

2.75 r

1.10s

S. No.

Crop

Screen aperture size (mm) and shape

Top screen

Bottom screen

1

2

3

4

4.

Chinese cabbage (both heading and nonheading)

2.75 r

0.90 s

5.

Knol-kohl

2.75 r

1.10s

Bulbs crops

1.

Onion

3.80 r

2.00 r

Root crops

1.

Carrot

2.30 r

1.00 r

2.

Celeriac

1.80 r

0.40 s, 0.65x0.65 m

3.

Sugar beet:

Monogerm

9.00 r

3.00 r

Multigerm

9.00 r

2.50 s

4.

Garden beet

9.00 r

3.00 r

5.

Radish

4.50 r

2.00 r

6.

Turnip

1.80 r

1.20 r

r: round aperture; s: slotted or oblong aperture; m: sieves with wire mesh. Source: Reprinted from IMSCS, 2013.

The cleaned seeds are to be brought down to optimum moisture content, that is, 8-10% for the majority of the crops. In general, seeds are dried shade at about 15°C and 10-15% relative humidity with good air recirculation. At the commercial level, seed driers having provisions for air circulation, temperature, and RH control.

Seed is a carrier and prone to various seed-borne diseases and pests. Under the certification program, there is provision for mandatory seed treatments to manage pathogens that are seed-borne in nature. Such treatments are mandatory before granting seed certification. If presowing seed treatment is required, the desired quantity of chemical must be placed inside seed container packed separately and complete information about treatment (IMSCS, 2013). As per IMSCS (2013), treated seed containers must be inscribed with the following instructions:

  • • Statement of indication that seed is treated;
  • • The chemical name of substance used; and
  • • Caution statement like “Do not Use for Food, Feed or Oil Purposes” must be inscribed on the label if applicable. The caution for mercurial and other toxic substances must be written as “POISON” and prominently displayed on label in red color.
  • 11.7.11 PACKING

The low-volume seed having small size and low seed rate is generally packed in moisture-proof packs. There are automatic machines to pack and seal the desired quantity of seed. However, the high-volume seeds are packed in cloth or gunny bags with or without polythene lining on the inner side. Such packs are not moisture-proof.

11.7.12 LABELING

Labeling is compulsory as per legal requirement. There are different kinds of label or tag for different classes. The class-wise description of seed tags is given below.

The breeder seed tag is golden yellow (ISI No. 356; IS-1978) with a dimension of 12 cm in length and 6 cm in width. The foundation seed tag (both stage I & II) is white in color with dimensions 157.5 cm. The certified seed tag (both stage I & II) is azure blue (ISI No. 104) in color having dimensions 157.5 cm. Likewise, the truthfully labeled seed tag is Opel green (ISI No. 275) in color with dimensions 157.5 cm in dimensions.

The dimensions can be proportionally altered depending upon size of seed packet or container.

11.7.13 STORAGE OF SEEDS

Seeds can be classified into two categories based on their minimum moisture limit and storage potential, that is, orthodox and recalcitrant seeds. The storage potential of orthodox seeds improves with reduction in moisture content to certain label under ambient conditions, such as all cereals, millets, pulses, oilseeds, forages, vegetables, ornamentals, and most leguminous trees, etc. On the contrary, the storage potential of recalcitrant seeds reduces with the reduction in moisture content at ambient condition, for example, avocado, araucaria, chow-chow, cocoa, coconut, durian, Jack fruit, mango, polyalthia, potato, rubber, and tea, etc.

SUMMARY

Seed, being vital for agriculture, deserves the utmost attention among all other inputs. Seed quality determines magnitude and quality of harvest and productivity of other inputs required for crop production. Quality of seed is, however, determined by quality of crop on which seed is borne. Hence, it is the management of seed crop that plays a pivotal role in quality and productivity of subsequent crop raised. Understanding seed quality, its components, and factors affecting individual component form basis of quality seed production. Moreover, being a commodity of trade, there are certain legislative mechanisms for QC. These mechanisms must be followed to have compliance to minimum field and seed standards. Thus, management of seed crop requires comprehensive understanding of basic principles of seed production, seed quality, QC mechanisms, legal aspects of production and trade, and of course the practical skills of crop husbandry. The postharvest management needs critical attention in detennining final quality of harvested seed that reaches end-user.

KEYWORDS

  • crops
  • legislation
  • management
  • principles
  • production
  • quality
  • seed

REFERENCES

Agarwal, R. L. Seed Technology; Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.: New Delhi, India. 1995; p 842. Bateman, A. J. Contamination of Seed Crop -II. Heredity’ 1947,1, 235-246.

Fieistrizer, W. P. Cereal Seed Technology. A Manual on Cereal Seed Production, Quality Control and Distribution, FAO, UN, 1975, p 238.

Haan, H. D. Maintaining Varieties of Self-fertlised Crop Plants. Euphytica 1953,2(1), 37-45.

Hartmann, H. T.; Kester, D. E. Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices; Prentice Hall Inc.: New Jersey, USA, 1968.

IMSCS. Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standards. CSCB, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi, 2013.

Kadam, B. S. Deterioration of Varieties of Crops and the Task of the Plant Breeder. Indian J. Gen. Plant Breed. 1942,2, 159-172.

Nema, N. P. Principles of Seed Certification and Testing; Allied Publishers: New Delhi, India. OECD, 1985.

Ramamoorthy, K.: Sivasubramaniam. K.; Kannan. A. Seed Legislation in India; Agrobios (India): Jodhpur, Rajasthan. India. 2006.

Ramamoorthy, K.; Sivasubramanium. K. Seed Technologу Readyreckoner: Agrobios: Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, 2006. p 119.

Thompson, J. R. An Introduction to Seed Technology•; Leonard Hill: London, UK, 1979.

 
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