Table of Contents:

Fungi responsible for causing diseases are a major factor in the low productivity of a crop. In this respect, cereals grains such as barley can easily be colonized by fungal species, which cause their deterioration (Soldevilla et al., 2005). All barley samples in the upper valleys of the states of Guanajuato, Hidalgo, and Puebla that were sampled showed fungal strains. From a total of 13 lots of samples of barley seeds with disease symptoms, 64 strains of phytopathogenic fungi were isolated, of which 27 were recovered from the variety Esmeralda, 13 from the Adabella variety, 11 from the variety Josefa, 9 of the Forrajera variety, and 6 of the Gaviota variety of barley (Table 15.2).

The results obtained in this research are similar to those reported by other authors for other barley-producing areas of the world (Soldevilla et al., 2005; Ocampo et al., 2005; Lowe and Ulmer, 2006; Bolton et al., 2008; Garcia et al., 2012).

In other studies, the presence of Penicillium and Aspergillus genera as predominant fungi has been reported in barley grains (Scudamore and Hetmanski, 1995; Maenetje and Dutton, 2007). However, our results do not coincide with those reported by these authors because in this study the species isolated from the genus Penicillium (Table 15.2) are not predominant fungal genera. This result may be due to the presence of other genera of fungi of greater economic importance for this crop (Fig. 15.2).

Within these important genera that were isolated as predominant is the complex of rust of cereals. Species of this genus have been reported to be responsible for causing diseases such as P striiffformis “4.5%” (Wellings,

2010), and brown rust caused by P triticina “4.5%,” P hordei “7.5%,” and P recondite “3.0%” (Steffenson et al., 1993; de Vallavieille-Pope et al., 1995; De Wolf et al., 2010; Bolton et al., 2008; Sanchez, 2011). The other predominant fungal genera in this study were Fusarium and Rliizopus with 18.5 and 15%, respectively. The genus Fusarium is responsible for causing fusariosis of the spike, a disease whose importance lies in its low yield and the toxins generated in the affected grains (Gilchrist-Saavedra et al., 2005).

All geographic areas where cereal crops are grown in Mexico present problems against Fusarium spp., vaiying the species at each location and at different times (Ireta and Gilchrist, 1994; CIMMYT, 2004). The losses can vary considerably, many times not being related to the yield, but yes with the content of toxins present in the grains. That is why big companies that use grain to make concentrated animal feed or cereals in flakes, for human consumption, control the content of toxins, imposing limits on their concentration. However, when there is no way to control the toxin content, infected grains become a health problem (Gilchrist-Saavedra, 2000).

In relation to R. oryzae, this genus has been reported to cause diseases of fruits of several species, such as strawberry (Fan-era et al., 2007), tulipan (Hisaki et al., 2006), cocoa (Cuervo-Parra et al., 2011), and barley

Fungal species

Variety of barley









Jose fa (JCPn)

% of total occurrence in isolationa

Drechslera teres


2, 10, 19, 51



16, 57


Bipolaris somkiniana


3, 12, 30


43, 65

14. 44


Fus ahum gram inearum

28, 53

1, 34, 55, 62



15, 64


Fusahum austroamehcanum







Rhizopus oryzae


0, 20, 29


24, 41

18, 45


Fusahum pseudograminearum







Puccinia tiiticina







Puccinia striifonms







Puccinia recondita







Puccinia hordei


48, 61





Alteniaha allernala


13, 31,32,49,56





Penicillium oxalicum

63, 52






Pen iciUium citrinum







Penicillium digitatum







“Percentage of occurrence for и = de 25 Petri dishes with PDA medium (5 replicates per barley variety). n: identification number of each strain.

(Romero-Cortes et al., 2016). Although this species is not reported as a pathogen of barley, their rapid growth observed during its isolation would allow it to colonize and destroy the seeds and plants in a very short time, being the first report of this fungus as pathogen for this crop in Mexico.

Percentage of more predominant genera

FIGURE 15.2 Percentage of more predominant genera.

The measurements of different morphological structures of phytopatho- genic fungi are described below. For Rhizopus oryzae the colonies showed a diameter of 75-80 mm, sporangiophore with stipes of more than 1500 pm in length, sporangium of more than 150 pm in diameter and conidia of 5-8 pm in length. For Drechslera teres colonies shown 5.1 mm/day growth rate, conidiophores showed different shape (64-79 x Ю-17 pm), and conidia being in the range 36-102 x 13-15 pm. In the case of Bipolaris sorokiniana, colonies grew on PDA medium showed a diameter of 35-40 mm, abundant sporulation of conidiophores with size of 130-154 x 6-8 pm, conidias are dark olivaceous brown with a size of 77-146 x 15—19 pm. In the case of Alternaria alternata, colonies in PDA medium showed a rapid growth with a diameter of 37-40 nun in 7 days. Conidias were small to moderate in size, 20-29 x 8-10 pm.

For Fusarium graminearum, F. austroamericanum, and F. pseudoameri- canum, it was observed that their growth was 5, 5.6, and 5.3 pm/day, respectively. In all three species, the presence of macroconidia was observed, ranging from 2.5 x 35-65 pm, with globular chlamydospores of 10-12 pm in diameter. The presence of microconidia was not observed. On the other hand, in the case of the barley rust, it was observed that Puccinia recondita

showed uredospores of brown color and spherical shape of 16-28 pm in diameter. Fori3 striiformis the uredospores were spherical to ovate in shape, orange colored, and with a size of 23-35 x 20-35 pm. Puccinia triticina showed uredospores of brown color and of oval form of around 25-30 x 15-20 pm. Finally, P hordei showed spherical uredospores in shape, orange, and with a size of 13-18 x 10-14 pm. For fungi of the genus Penicillium (P oxalicum, P. citrinum, P digitatum), blue-green conidia with a growth diameter of 35-40 pm were observed at 7 days of growth. The conidia were round to ellipsoidal in P oxalicum, unicellular and observed as chains not branched at the end of the phialide, between 2 and 5 pm in diameter. The morphological characteristics of the fungal species isolated from barley grains are shown in Figures 15.3 and 15.4.

Macroscopic characteristics of fungal species isolated from barley plant seeds

FIGURE 15.3 Macroscopic characteristics of fungal species isolated from barley plant seeds.

Microscopic characteristics of fungal species isolated from barley plant seeds

FIGURE 15.4 Microscopic characteristics of fungal species isolated from barley plant seeds.


Knowledge of the fungi species present in a particular crop is of utmost importance to be able to implement strategies aimed at the prevention and control of the diseases that these fungal agents can cause in the cultivation of barley. Likewise, the use of reliable techniques for the identification of strains of phytopathogenic fungi is of equal importance to avoid their dispersion within an area.


  • hordeum vulgare
  • phytopathogenic fungi
  • morphological characterization
  • barley
  • microorganism


Alvarez. N. M. Purificacion у caracterizacion parcial de dos celulasas de Tnchoderma harzianum CINV17. Master's Thesis, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz. 2007.

Arevalo, G. E.; Ortiz, В. C.; Zuniga, C. L.; Gonzales, V. J. Hoja TecnicaNo. 51. Seleccion de plantas de cacao resistentes a la Moniliasis usando savia del floema у fluidos embrionicos de frutos jovenes. Manejo Integrado de Plagas у Agroecologia (Costa Rica). 2005, 76, 86-88.

Bolton, M. D.; Kolmer, J. A.; Garvin, D. F. Wheat Leaf Rust Caused by Puccinia triticina. Mol. Plant Pathol 2008, P, 563-575.

Carmona, M.; Barreto, D.: Romero A. Enfermedades del cultivo de cebada. Importancia, sintomas у manejo. In: CEBADA CERVECERA: Bases funcionales para un mejor manejo del cultivo; Miralles, D. J.. Benech-Arnold, R. L., Abeledo, L. G„ Eds.; 2011: pp 133-169.

Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento del Maiz у el Trigo (CIMMYT). Programa de Maiz del CIMMYT. 2004. Enfermedades de! maiz: una guia para su identificacion en el campo; 4th ed., CIMMYT: Mexico. D. F„ 2004.

Crous, R W.; Janse, B. J. H.: Tunbringe, J.; Holz, G. DNA Homology Between Pyrenophora japonica and P. teres. Mycol. Res. 1995, 99, 1098-1102.

Cuervo, P. J. A.; Ramirez. S. M.; Sanchez. L. V.; Ramirez, L. M. Antagonistic Effect of Tiichodenna harzianum VSL 291 on Phytopathogenic Fungi Isolated from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Fruits. Aft. J. Biotechnol. 2011,10, 10657-10663.

De Wolf, E.: Paul. P; Osborne. L.: Trenuta A. Identificando a las Royas del Trigo у Cebada, USDA-CREES Extension Integrated Pest Management Program Award 2009-41533-05331; 2010; Vol. l,pp 1-4.

de Vallavieille. P. C.; Huber, L.; Leconte, M.; Goyeau, H. Comparative Effects of Temperature and Interrupted Wet Periods on Germination, Penetration, and Infection of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici and P striiformis on Wheat Seedlings. Phytopathology- 1995, 85, 409^tl5.

Espinosa, M.; Nieto, B. J.; Cervantes. M. A.; Gonzalez, С. M. Plan Estrategico de Investigation у Transferencia de Tecno/ogia en el Sector Agropecuario у Agroindustrial. Cadena Agroalimentaria de Cebada. Etcipa II: Identificacion de Demandas Tecno/ogicas en la Cadena Agroalimentaria de Cebada. Plan Estrategico de Necesidades de Investigation у Transferencia de Tecno/ogia; Fundacion Guanajuato Produce: Queretaro, Mexico, 2003; 20.

Farrera, P. R. E.: Zambrano, V. A. E.; Ortiz, M. F. A. Identificacion de bongos asociados a enfermedades del fruto de la fresa en el municipio Jauregui del estado Tachira. Rev. Fac. Agi on. (LUZ). 2007, 24, 269-281.

Garcia, C.; Palmero, D.; De Cara, M.; Cruz, A.; Gonzalez, J. M. Microbiota asociada a la enfermedad de la punta negra del trigo duro. Efectos del riego, el abonado nitrogenado у la variedad cultivada en la incidencia de la enfermedad. 1ТЕЛ. Inform. Tec. Econ. Agrar. 2012, 108, 343-356.

Gilchrist, S. L.; Fuentes, D. G.; Martinez, С. C.; Lopez. A. R. M.; Duveiller, E.; Singh. R. P.; Henry. M.; Garcia A. Guia practice para la identificacion de algunas enfermedades de trigo у cebada; Segunda Edicion. Mexico, D. F., Centro Internac. de mejoramiento de Maiz у Trigo (CIMMYT); 2005; 68.

Gilchrist, S. L. I. Problemas Fitosanitarios de los Cereales de Grano Pequeno en los Valles Altos de Mexico. Rev. Mex. Fitopatol. 2000,18, 132-137.

Gomez, M. R.; Garcia, S. R.; Perez, C. J. P. Guia Para Cultivar Cebada Maltera de Temporal en el Estado de Hidalgo; Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas у Pecuarias. Centro de Investigacion de la Region Centro, Campo Experimental Pachuca. Folleto para Productores, 1997; Vol. 8, p 23.

Hisaki, V.; Benva, M.; Wright. E. R.; Morisigue, D. Podredumbre humeda poscosecha de bulbos de tulipan ocasionada por Rhizopus stolonifer. Jomadas de Enfermedades en Cultivos Bajo Cubierta. Actualization Fitosaniataria en Cultivos Protegidos; Libro de Resumenes: La Plata; 2006; 69.

Ireta, J.; Gilchrist, L. La Roiia de la Espiga del Trigo; Reporte espec. de trigo. No. 21a, CIMMYT; 1994; 25.

Lawrence, D. P.; Rodonto, F.; Gannibal. P. B. Biodiversity and Taxonomy of the Pleomorphic Genus Alternana. Mycol. Prog. 2016,15, 3.

Lowe, D.; Uhner, H. The Influence of Starter Culture on Barley Contaminated with Fusarium culmorum TMW 4.0754. J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 2006, 64, 158-165.

Maenetje, P. W.; Dotton, M. F. The Incidence of Fungi and Mycotoxins in South African Barley and Barley Products. J. Environ. Sci. Health 2007, 42, 229-236.

Manamgoda, D. S.: Rossman. A. Y.; Castlebury, L. A.; Crous, P. W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.: Hyde. K. D. The Genus Bipolaris. Stud. Mycol. 2014, 79, 221-288.

Ocampo, S. I. O.; Jaimez. O. J.; Contreras, L. E.; Carrazana, G. J. Estudio de la Microflora у Contenido de Aflatoxinas Presentes en cebadas Cultivadas у Ahnacenadas en el Estado de Hidalgo. In VII Congreso Nacional de Ciencias de los Alimentos у III Foro de Ciencia у Tecnologia de Alimentos. 1-3 de junio; Guanajuato, Gto: Mexico, 2005; pp 245-253.

Produccion Mundial Cebada (PMC). Cebada Produccion Mundial 2017/2018, 2017.

Romero, С. T.; Ramirez, L. M.; Perez, E. V. H.; Lopez. P. P. A.; Morales, О. M. A.; Cuervo, P. J. A. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Rhizopus oiyzae Strains Isolated from Barley Grains. Memoirs of the XX Congreso Nacional de Ingenieria Bioquimica, IX Congreso Internacional de Ingenieria Bioquimica, XIV Jomadas Cientificas de Biomedicina у Biotecnologia Molecular; Veracruz. Mexico, 2016; pp 171-179.

SAGARPA. Servicio de Informacion у Estadistica Agroalimentaria у Pesquera, Anuario Estadistico de la Produccion Agricola, 2009.

SAGARPA. Aumenta 33 por ciento produccion de cebada en Mexico, 2017.

Sanchez. F. C. F. Evaluacion participativa de cuatro lineas у tres variedades de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.), resistentes a sequia, en dos Epocas de siembra у en invernadero, en la Espocli. Riobamba, provincia de Chimborazo. Thesis, Esc. de Ingenieria Agronomica, Riobamba-Ecuador, 2011, 145.

Scudamore, K. A.; Hetmanski, M. T. Nature Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Cereals in the United Kingdom. FoodAddit. Contain. 1995,12, 377-382. Soldevilla, C.; Vazquez, C.; Patino, B.; Jurado, M.; Gonzalez, J. M. T. Hongos toxicogenicos asociados a trigo у cebadas de Castilla у Leon. Bol. San. Veg. Plagas. 2005, 31, 519-529. Steffenson, B. J.; Jin, Y.; Griffey, C. A. Pathotypes of Puccinia hordei with Virulence for the Barley Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Rph7 in the United States. Plant Dis. 1993, 77, 867-869. Wellings, C. Threat specific contingency plan. Barley stripe rust (Puccinia striifonnis f. sp. hordei). Plant Health Aust. 2010, 32.

Zamora. D. M.; Solano, H. S.; Gomez, M. R.; Rojas, M. I.; Ireta, M. J.; Garza. G. R.; Ortiz, T. C. Adabella: Variedad de cebada maltera para Valles Altos de la Mesa Central de Mexico. Ague. Тёс. Hex. 2008, 34, 491-493.

Zuniga, J.; Lezaun. J. A.; Esparza M.; Garnica I. Enfermedades transmitidas por semilla en Trigos у cebadas. Naval: Agrai: 2010, 6, 29-32.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >