ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL DIVERSITY

Several groups of researchers have reported that the interaction between genotype and environment play a significant role in phytochemical constituents in chili fruit (Zewdie and Bosland, 2000; Lee et al., 2005). The major capsaicinoids content among different Capsicum accessions varied greatly in different geographical locations (Butcher et al., 2012; Kundu et al., 2015; Zewdie and Bosland, 2000; Islam et al., 2015). It has also been reported that the synthesis of carotenoids and flavonoids in pepper fruits is significantly affected by a discrepancy in environmental factors (Lee et al., 2005; Lee et al., 1995). The nonpungent genotypes showed absence of capsaicinoids but possessed variable amounts of capsinoids, the nonpungent analogs of capsaicinoids (Kobata et al., 1998; Janet et al., 2014; Zunun-Perez et al., 2017). Chili fruits are also rich sources of various phenolics and flavonoids; quercetin, catechin, luteolin, apigenin, and their derivatives being the important one (Marin et al., 2004; Wahyuni et al., 2011; Dubey et al., 2015). It has been reported that the phenolic content was found to be in the range from 0.35 to

133.2 mg GAE/g diy weight and can differ according to the genotype, stages of maturity, and geographical locations (Gurnani et al., 2016; Dutta et al., 2016; Conforti et al., 2007; Marin et al., 2004). A wide array of carotenoids including capsanthin, zeaxanthin, (3-cryptoxanthin, p-carotene, capsorubin, and anthocyanin are found in Capsicum fruits [Rodriguez-Uribe et al., 2014; Carvalho et al., 2015; Topuz and Ozdemir, 2007]. Irrespective of final fruit color these carotenoids are present in most chili fruits and their abundance is also reported to be cultivar-specific (Guzman et al., 2010; Wahyuni et al., 2011; Wall et al., 2001). Among different types of vitamins vitamin

Region of study

No. of accessions

No. of characters studied

Capsicum species

Major findings

References

India

30

12

C. annuum

Fruit length (cm), 2.9-5.16 Fruit diameter (cm), 0.83-1.97 Plant height (cm), 57.03-71.68 Days to fust flowering, 36.07-60.5 No of primary branchplant. 3.80-6.23 Seed per fruit, 31.48-44.69 Fruit weight (g), 1.01-2.4 Fruit/plant, 44.24-427.95

Yatung et al. (2014)

Brazil

20

12

C. annuum

Days to flowering. 66.67-110.00 Days of the fust ripe fruit, 138.33-170.67 Plant height (cm), 18.57-46.63 Canopy diameter (cm), 23.12-48.72 Fruit number per plant. 510-890 Fresh fruits weight (g), 0.42-17.33 Diy fruit weight (g), 0.13-2.8 Fruit length (mm), 11.61-70.13 Fruit width (mm), 6.95-25.62 Fruit wall thickness (mm), 0.52-3.31 Yield/plant (g), 845-1350g

Padillia et al. (2016)

Bangladesh

60

27

Capsicum sp.

Fruit color at immature stage, greenblackgreen

with blackish blushdark green

Fruit color at mature stage, green black green with

blackish blush dark green

Fruit shape- Elongate/conical

Rahman et al. (2017)

Region of study

No. of accessions

No. of characters studied

Capsicum species

Major findings

References

Corolla color, white/light yellow/purple with white margin

No. of fruits per plant. 1.00-70.50 Fruit length (cm), 1.00-7.20 Fruit width (cm), 0.54-5.00 Individual fruit weight (g), 0.80-3.60 Yield/plant (g), 1.09-155.57

Uganda

37

48

C. annuum

Days to flowering. 10-59

Days to fruiting. 13-63 Days to fruit maturity. 60-112 Plant height (cm), 49-136 Canopy diameter (cm), 42-119 Fruits/plant, 4-62 Fresh fruits weight (g), 1.3-44.4 Fruit length (cm), 2.2-15.2 Fruit width (cm), 0.9-3.1 Pedicel length (cm), 2.4-5.5 Fruit wall thickness (mm), 0.9-3.9 Seeds/fruit, 31-148

Immature fruit color, white/yellow/green/orange/ purple/deep purple

Mature fruit color, wliite/lemon-yellow/pale orange-yellow/orange-yellow/pale orange/orange/ light red/red/dark red/purple/brown/black

Nsabiyera et al. (2013)

Region of study

No. of accessions

No. of characters studied

Capsicum species

Major findings

References

Fruit shape, elongate/almost round triangular/ campanulate/blocky

Brazil

30

10

Capsicum sp.

Plant height (cm), 18.00-88.50

Diameter of canopy (cm), 33.66-92.33

Seeds/fruit- 6.00-51.00

Fruit length (cm), 0.71-5.5

Fruit diameter (cm), 0.3-3.7

Fruit shape, elongate/triangular/round/campanulate/

square

Bianchi et al. (2016)

Central America, the Caribbean Basin and South America

264

13

C. chiueuse

Immature fruit color, white/yellow/green purple Mature fruit color, yellow/orange/red/ brown/black/ ivory/salmon

Fruit shape, elongate/almost round triangular/

campanulate/blocky

Fruit length (mm), 6.27-70.44

Fruit width (mm), 6.83-40.32

Pedicel length (mm), 14.75-44.84

Fruit weight (g), 0.20-14.50

Placenta size, greater than one-fourth to half fruit

length/ gr eater than half fruit length

Bharath et al. (2013)

Central Brazil

30

22

C. baccatum

Fruit length (mm), 0 to >100

Fruit width (mm), 0 to >40

Fruit wall thickness (mm), 0.0 to >2.0

Average weight of 10 fruits (g), 0 to >12

Martinez et al. (2017)

Region of study

No. of accessions

No. of characters studied

Capsicum species

Major findings

References

Fruit shape, elongate/triangular/round/bell-like Mature fruit color, dark red/red/light red/orange

Nigeria

5

15

C. amuum var.

abbreviation

C. aim mini var-.

amuum

C. amuum var-.

accuminatum

C. amuum var-.

grossum

C. amuum var-.

glabhusculum

Fruit length (mm), 42.35-126.69 Fruit width (mm),19.51-65.32 Pedicel length (mm), 27.94-44.94 seeds/ffuit. 41.43-108.4

Zliigila et al. (2014)

Northwest era Mexico

17

12

C. aim шип L. var. glabhusculum

Height of plant (cm), 53.0-249.0 Length of fruit (rum), 2.7-94 Width of fruit (mm), 2.4-7.2 Weight of fruit (mg), 2.8-130.6 Number of seeds per fiaiit. 1-25

Lopez-Espana et al. (2016)

Nigeria

5

23

C. annuum, C. fivtescens

Length of fruit (cm), 1.3-2.8 Width of fruit (cm), 0.15-2.7 Fruit shape, ovoid/linear Seeds/fruit, 4-10 Fruit color, yellow/red Leaf length (cm), 5.4-9.9 Leaf width (cm), 4.2-5.0

Aziagba

(2015)

Region of study

No. of accessions

No. of characters studied

Capsicum species

Major findings

References

India

9

C. armuum, C.fi utes- cens, C. chinense

Floral characters Karyological studies

Jha and Saha (2016)

Korea

1

12

Capsicum sp.

Corolla color, white/ purple Stem diameter (cm), 0.53-1.7 Leaf length (cm)- 5.17-18.83 Leaf width (cm), 2-8 Fruit length (cm), 3.5-14.43 Fruit width (cm), 1.43-4.53 Fruit wall thickness (cm), 1.53-4.8 Mean fruit weight (g), 4.31-40.92

Luetal. (2012)

Brazil

347

50

Capsicum sp.

Stem color, shape, pubescence, length, and diameter; nodal anthocyanin (the whole plant); plant height, growth habit, and canopy width; brandling habit; tillering; leaf density, color, shape, and pubescence; lamina margin; mature leaf length and width; number of flowers per axil; flower position; corolla color, spot color, shape, and length; anther color and length; filament color and length; Stigma exseition; male sterility; calyx pigmentation, maigin. and annular constriction; anthocyanin spots or stripes; fruit color at intermediate stage and mature stage; fruit shape, length, width, weight, wall thickness and surface; fruit shape at pedicel attachment; neck at base of

Barbieri et al. (2007)

Region of study

No. of accessions

No. of characters studied

Capsicum species

Major fin dings

References

fruit; fruit shape at blossom end and blossom end appendage; fruit cross-section corrugation; number of locules; ripe fruit persistence; seed color and surface; number of seeds per fruit.

Brazil

49

13

C. chinense

Fruit length (mm), 14.15-76.22 Fruit width (mm), 8.69-42.89 Fruit fresh weight(g), 0.99-19.15 Extractable color (ASTAunits). 30.35-595.84

Finger et al. (2010)

World wide

39

20

C. annuum

Corolla color, white, purple Flower position, pendant, intermediate, erect Fruit color at intermediate stage, light yellow/light green/ green/ deep green Mature fruit color, light red. red. dark red. brown Leaf color, green, dark green, dark purple Fruit shape, elongate, ahnost round, blocky Days to maturity, days to flowering, fruit maturation period, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, pericarp thickness, pedicel length, plant height, canopy width, arial fresh biomass, fruit number, fruit yield, harvest index

Geleta et al. (2005)

Italy

19

C. annuum

Plant height (cm), 57.3-125.8 Fruit length (cm), 2.6-12.5 Fruit width (cm), 1.14-2.61 Fruit weight (g), 3.1-14.5 Pericarp thickness (mm), 1.40-3.01

De Masi et al. (2007)

Region of study

No. of accessions

No. of characters studied

Capsicum species

Major findings

References

India

139

8

C. armuum, C.fiutes- cens, C. chinense

Fruit length (cm), 0.7-10.22

Fruit weight (g), 0.05-10.58

Seeds/fruit, 3-100

Seed weight. 0.035-0.071

Fruiting habit, pendant/erect

Fruit shape, elongated/ahnost round/block shaped/

triangular/ovate/short slender

Fruit color at maturity, light red/yellow/dark red/

red/orange/chocolate

Fruit shape at blossom end. pointed/ blunt sunken

Sarpras et al. (2016)

India

56

C. annuum, C.frutescens, C. chinense

Plant growth habit, erect/intermediate/prostrate

Plant height (cm), 36-111

Corolla color, white/light yellow/yellow/yellow-

green purple with white base/white with purple

base/white with purple margin purple

Fruit color at intermediate stage, white/yellow/

green/yellow green purple/deep purple

Fruit color at the mature stage, white/ lemon-yel-

low/pale orange-yellow/orange yellow/pale orange/

orange/ light red /red /dark re d pu rpl e/brown;b lack

Fruit shape, elongate/ahnost round/triangular/ cam-

p anu lat e/bl ocky (ob long)/star-shap ed

Fmiting behavior, pendant/erect

Fruit width (cm), 0.6-4.54

Fruit surface, smooth semi wrinkled/wrinkled

Yumnam et al. (2012)

Region of study

No. of accessions

No. of characters studied

Capsicum species

Major Tin dings

References

Turkey

б

10

Capsicum spp.

Fruit width (cm), 0.51-2.03 Fruit length (cm), 2.91-6.12 Plant height (cm), 51.02-94.98 Fruit/plant, 175.4-460.4 Yield/plant (g), 253.9-675.5 Yield (kg Ha4), 9412-24418

Yaldiz and Ozguven (2011)

Asia. America, Africa, and Europe

32

Capsicum spp.

Unripe fruit color, white/light green/green/dark green

Ripe fruit color, red/dark red/brown/dark brown/ s almon/yel low/or ang e

Fruit shape, elongate/roundish/triangular/blocky (oblong)

Fruit size, very small/small/medium/large

Waliyuni et al. 2011

Brazil and Mexico

56

25

Capsicum spp.

Fruit length (cm), 2.7-10.3

Fruit diameter (cm), 1.0-3.5 Seed number per fruit. 26.2-155.5 Plant height (cm), 38.3-92.7 Canopy diameter (cm), 45.5-114.4 Weight of 1000 seeds (g), 3.3-5.7 Days to flowering. 36.6-71.3 Days to fruiting. 118.8-160.7 Fruit number per plant. 39.8-381.5 Fruit weight per plant (g), 238.2-1063.0 Fruit mean weight (g), 0.6-29.2

Sudre et al. 2010

Region of study

No. of accessions

No. of characters studied

Capsicum species

Major findings

References

Stem color, green/ green with purple stripes/ purple Anther color, yellow/ pale blue/ blue/ purple Corolla color, white/ purple/white with yellow- green spots/white-green yellow with purple base/ purple with yellow base Flower position, pendant/intermediate/erect Immature fruit color, yellow/green/orange/purple Mature fruit color, white/pale orange-yellow/ orange-yellow/pale orange/orange/light red/red/ dark red/purple

Fruit shape, elongate/ahnost round triangular/ cam- panulate/blocky/ellipse/star shaped Fruit surface, smooth/semiwrinkled/wrinkled Number of locules, two/three/four

The wide range of variation in fruit morphology cultivated in different geographical regions

FIGURE 16.1 The wide range of variation in fruit morphology cultivated in different geographical regions.

Source-. Paul et al. (2013).

C, vitamin E, and provitamin A are most abundant in chili fruits. Though their quantities showed wide variations, ripened fruits usually contained the maximum amounts (Wahyuni et al., 2011; Topuz and Ozdemir, 2007; Marin et al., 2004). The aforesaid parameters greatly influence the antioxidant activities of Capsicum fruits and, thereby, variations in these parameters lead to variable antioxidant activities (Dutta et al., 2016; Conforti et al.; 2007; Dubey et al., 2015). Nevertheless, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, oils, and volatile compounds are also reported to vary greatly in different accessions of chili fruits (Azabou et al., 2017; Gumani et al. 2016). Variations in chili fruits often lead to qualitative variations in the products prepared and can lead to critical losses (Reilly et al., 2001). The major variations in chemical compounds including capsaicin, carotenoids, and vitamins among different accessions of capsicum are represented in Table 16.2. The identification of a suitable environment is prerequisite to cultivate specific pepper genotype with the highest quality of bioactive compounds. Since pungency is the key trait in capsicum, screening of variability of capsaicinoids content in different accessions would be not only helpful for researchers but to the pharmaceutical industries for commercial utilization.

 
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