GREENHOUSE

A good technology involved for the conservation of plants, popularly known as “greenhouse,” is now adopted to provide favorable environment condition to the plants. During the unfavorable environmental conditions, to some extent, it is used to save the plants from abiotic and biotic stresses like wind, cold, precipitation, extreme temperature, excessive radiation, insects, and diseases (Yadav et al., 2014). Under greenhouse or playhouse, where the environmental conditions are changed manually, one can grow any plant in any place at any tune by providing suitable environmental conditions. During the winter season, changing the climatic temperature at that conditions cold air does not enter inside the playhouse and inside environment becomes favorable for rapid germination of seed and growth of seedlings. Several times fanners produce an increase in fruit yield of capsicum (Singh et al., 2011).

It is difficult to grow some important vegetables like capsicum, tomato, etc., in the open field condition due to abiotic cold stress. Therefore, greenhouse technology was introduced for off-season production of vegetable nurseries as well as conservation of high-value selected germplasm.

Capsicum field trial was conducted in the playhouse to assess the yield performance (Singh and Naik, 1990; Singh et ah, 2010). Fruit yield of capsicum differed significantly with open and control environment also reported (Shahak et al., 2007; Khan et al., 2010; Patel and Rajput, 2010; Roy et al., 2011). Sometimes, significantly, higher plant height, number of branches, and the total number of fruits in capsicum were noted under the playhouse condition (Jovicich et al., 2005). Sweet peppers germplasm conserved under greenhouse is worldwide also reported by Lin and Saltveit (2012).

SEED BANK

Seed banks are an important effective way of ex situ conservation where a huge number of genetic diversities is maintained in veiy small places. The advantages of seed bank are that about 90% of seed plants have orthodox seeds, multiple collections be able to conserve in a small space and database systems empower the recording of multiple ecogeographic details on each seed population (Babu et al., 2014; Ruiz-Gonzalez et al., 2017; Lei and Middleton, 2017).

Requirement of seeds from seed banks can be used both for conservation or preservation and restoration (Fig. 17.3) of plant populations (Rodriguez- Arevalo et al., 2017). Classically, ex situ conservation arrangement works only as back-ups to in situ conservation systems. In the past few years, many collections were maintained without the help of storage facilities, which would extend the viability of seeds. It is a fact that about 1750 gene banks are now involved worldwide for conservation of more than 7 million plant germplasm accessions and nearly 2 million accessions are estimated to be unique (Fu, 2017).

Sometimes conserved accessions had to be regenerated very frequently leading to loss of genetic diversity in gene banks (Frankel and Hawkes, 1975; Nair et al., 2017). For the maintenance of genetic pureness of the conserved germplasm accessions, troubles arise primarily due to the selection during regeneration, outcrossing with other access and genetic drift, differential survival in storage (Allard, 1970; Lawan et al., 2016). Appropriate storage conditions related to understanding the genetic control of best discriminating among the studied traits would bring a significant contribution to the genetic improvement and proper grow-outs are expected to reduce the effects of such problems (Rao, 1980; Garba et al., 2015).

Steps involved for seed’s conservation

FIGURE 17.3 Steps involved for seed’s conservation.

The genetic resources of wild chili pepper or Capsicum in the population are valuable assets and the information of the germination ability is of great priority for its management and conservation (Espana et al., 2017). A total of 372 accessions were conserved that is collected from 31 provinces in China (Zhang Xiao-min et al., 2016). Conservation and collection of some wild and domesticated species of Capsicum from Bolivia contains 487 accessions and Peruvian capsicum contains 712 accessions (Zonnevel et al., 2015).

 
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