RESOURCE CONSERVATION PRACTICES
“Wise saving is earning” is the best conservation practice of resource management.
There are many reasons in favor and against conservation practices for resource saving or build up. We have a common saying that is saving is earning. It is to be noted that if the saving is not wise or rational, that saving may harm otherwise or it may not work at all. This is the conservation principle applicable for all resources, be it bioresources or non-bioresources. Of course, the value of conservation practices may vary from one to another. For example, NNRs like oil, gas, coal, minerals are in deposit may exhaust any time and if they are exhausted, they would not be available any more from those sources unless a new deposit is discovered.
If we have lot of money earned, deposited in the bank and use them without following conservation practices, it is exhausted, it will not generate. If we follow the principle of conservation practices, spent money not more than the rate of interest in the Bank or elsewhere, the capital or basic investment is protected or conserved, while the expenditure is less than the increment, it is building up of resources, that is, we may have sustainable development through accretion by compound interest. In the case of natural resources like forest, horticulture, fish farming, forest fanning, the growth rate is taken care of. Harvesting more than the increment, the growth will naturally lead to depletion of the resource base. In case of this natural living resource or we say bioresource, the growth rate, quality, quantity, rotation of cutting, and replanting, and so on are the determinant for prescribing the practicing principles. Here the silviculture and the silviculture of species of the crop is used to decide silvicultural system for conservation practice in order to obtain optimum yield from the crop being managed. The selection of silviculture system is again dependent upon objectives of the management. For example, production of paper pulpwood for running paper mills of the countiy with a view to reduce paper pulp import. Here, in our tropical climate, fast growing paper pulp producing ideal species, may be selected is Eucalyptus camaldulensis with rotation period of 12 years. The second choice may be Acacia mangifera with the same rotation.
18.3.1 AWARENESS OF CONSERVATION PRACTICES
Understanding conservation and conservation practice or being aware of conservation practice in the 21st century is so necessary that it becomes hard for mass people to survive without practicing conservation of resources or bioresources. This is because the ages are competition age in the context of rapid population growth, higher rate of consumption or utilization of resources and naturally depletion of re-sources. It is to be noted that you and I are not enough if we practice conservation of resources, it is in fact largely depend upon mass population. It will not be effective and bring about any positive change of the resources or economy until and unless mass people honestly and earnestly resort to conservation practices. Education, training of mass people is necessary so as to make them aware of importance of practicing conservation of resources, be it renewable or nonrenewable.
18.3.2 BOTTLENECKS IN CONSERVATION PRACTICES
It is not unusual to have bottleneck in any work. It is there in most of the cases particularly countries are not so well of in their resource base. Lacking education or unaware of conservation practices is one major bottleneck. Again, in this age of competition for upgrading living standard, saving though essential becomes very difficult particularly when one lives hand to mouth. In such a case, all out support needs to be extended to them along with the technology. One may earn plenty but there is no way of raising living standard or living better other than practicing conservation of the resource earned. It is a must for mass people. If one really mean business, must think and got down to the grass-root level with a basket of technical knowhow and teach them, motivate them, convince them about the usefulness of practicing conservation of resources. National policy in this respect is veiy important and plays an effective role.
18.3.3 BALANCED CONSERVATION PRACTICES
Bioresource use is practically on the increase and it increases with the increase of human population. It is to be noted that rich or poor, all uses bioresources and the poor class is too much dependent upon bioresources. Bioresource use increases with the present trend of life style where demand is higher than the legal production and supply. The situation is such that in many countries, the growth rate cannot keep pace with the consumption. As a result, the basic bioresources are harvested legally or illegally to meet the bare minimum demand and therefore the scope for resource build up is shattered. This is just like eating the capital where interest or production decreases along with the decrease of capital value. As a result, the resource base is depleted and its eco system services degenerate.
Under such adverse situation of bioresource, how on earth it is possible to ensure balanced conservation practice? This is a question of survival of the people of today and tomorrow as well, when the trend of resource depletion is ongoing fr om time immemorial. The whole world is shaken by the wanton destruction of natural resources like forest resources and many others both in soil and sea. We know a stitch in tune saves nine but here it is too late for many. When they live hand to mouth, how they do practice forest resource conservation. In countries like Bangladesh, moratorium or ban on felling of forest trees in the past did not work. This is forest dependent people live hand to mouth, cannot but to go for stealing forest trees. The forest conservation practice becomes almost impossible! In such a situation, Government is to come forward for help to the needy, ration of daily fuel wood or to provide free kerosene and also cash money so that they do not go to the forest. The greedy one should be prosecuted and deterrent punishment is desired so as to stop pilferage. This may be termed as gestation period and hopefully by that period the required level of forest resource is built up. Again another approach is to ban felling of forests and meet the national demand by import from other countries. This forest conservation practice depends upon the Government policy execution. Countries possessing adequate other resources may make this practice successful. But countries like Bangladesh, there are no guarantee of success by imposing moratorium on forest felling and or importing necessary forest produce. Balanced conservation practice for the resource poor countries is really difficult. As this living forest resource’s contribution in ameliorating the trans-boundary environment, the world bodies like UNDP, UNEP, IUCN, WWF, and others may come forward for support.
Sustainability has often been defined as how biological systems endure and remain diverse and productive. But, the 21st century definition of sustainability goes far beyond these narrow parameters. Today, it refers to the need to develop the sustainable models necessary for both the human race and planet Earth to survive. That is to ensure for present and future the abode, the food, the daily necessities for all living being. As we desire lasting peace, we depend upon lasting development of our resources. Sustainability in forest resources is more important in the sense that unless sustainability is ensured within the optimum time of reproducing capacities, the opportunity of ensuring sustainable development of forest resources becomes feeble. Forest resource, being a living regenerating entity, uses of the annual increment should never be more than the increment if the sustainability is expected. It is wise and appropriate to use the increment always less than the increment. This is something saving from the earning. The more is the saving from the earning the more is the stability of resources.
18.4.1 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL
SDG may be defined as desired achievement lasts more or less in perpetuity. It is natural that the goal or target when achieved remains everlasting or the development so achieved becomes sustainable. To make this development such, it is necessary to maintain an account book for income and expenditure from the basic or capital resources. In a forest, provision for similar forest management account book is maintained where the annual growth (increment or income) and the annual removal/tree felling (expenditure) is maintained. Now it becomes clear that if it is desired to have sustainable development of forest resources or any other business, expenditure must be less than the income. On the contrary, if the expenditure becomes more than the income, the business will show red light, the forest resource began dwindling. Unless this situation is not reversed within a reasonable time, the business, the forest resource will gradually get lost and there will be no point of return. Of course, by fresh investment, new business or new forest may be grown over a time with man, money, materials and time. So, conservation practice is wise, sensible, and economic as against wastage of man, money, materials and time. Here one is to understand through acquiring adequate knowledge for handling or managing the business efficiently. This achievement of SDG either in forest management or in any other business is a success of the business. Let everybody understand conservation practice and conservation practice will hopefully yield sustainable resource.
18.4.2 SUSTAINABLE YIELD
Sustainable yield is an optimum yield or production at a regular interval over a reasonable time period. Sustained Yield Use is a form of natural resource or forest management practice that aims at “not killing the goose that lays the golden egg.” This means not to enjoy the present at the cost of future. To make sure solvency for future, sustained yield is necessary. This concept is mainly used for natural resources, particularly forestiy and fishing, it can, however, also be applicable to all economic activities with a capital resource, production timeline, consumption, and surplus management. Sustained yield ensures the feasibility of continuous, long-term exploitation of available resources to obtain regular harvests.
Conservation practices may yield sustainable resource provided management prescription relating to the resources in question is well thought over documented and applied as prescribed in the management plan. Conservation practice is a careful use, preservation and protection of something especially planned management of any resource such as natural resources like vegetation, forests, agri-crops, air, water, minerals, oil, gas, and so on and to prevent exploitation, destruction, neglect, or overuse. The principle of conservation is normally followed by conservancy organizations such that any resources under management does not deplete rather it is expected to improve. Forests are valuable national assets and constitute multiple resources within a unit. There could be a variety of trees, wildlife, rivers, and leisure hot spots. Each of these constitutes a natural capital base, from which yields are extracted optimally, without jeopardizing the sustainability of each resource. The United States passed a Federal law in 1960 to manage and develop the renewable and maintainable resources of the national forests for multiple use and sustained yield. Sustainable yield in fisheries is the amount of fishing that can be done without reducing the population density of the species, that is, the surplus to maintain the ecosystem. The virgin population of the species decreases with fishing activity; hence it needs to be balanced with the tune the species needs to breed and develop. The sustainable yield would be within the range of the population density and its capacity to reproduce. Concept of conservation practices in fishery may be maximum, optimal and annual sustainable yields depending upon nature of management objectives. The first is exactly half the carrying capacity of the species by the ecosystem. Population growth is highest at this stage. Optimal sustainable yield represents the highest difference between total revenue and cost. It is typically lower than maximum sustainable yield. The third is the harvest, which can be obtained without lowering original population numbers
According to FAO, 76% of the world’s population rely on forests for their water supply. It is therefore important to make sure that the annual yield of water from a forest may be a sustained supply but lean period supply may not be same as wet season. It is therefore important to manage the forest of the watershed or the water producing forests such that lean period also produce and supply the same amount of water. Special treatment is necessary for water conservation practices. Water in the recent years has become more precious and in many places, water being a god gifted free commodity is unthinkable nowadays. In fact, water is life. Without water, there is no life. Forest is the mother of water.
As said, bioresource is intimately dependent upon water resources and not to speak of bioresources, the nonliving resources are also intimately related to water. The non-bioresources are also to maintain a percentage of moisture in them so that they are not destroyed or deteriorated. As forest is one of the most important bioresources and that it provides water in lean period, research on forest and water relationship is a matter of great urgency. As we all know that there is a global water crisis in spite of three-fourth of the earth is occupied by water, the land mass with all its belongings are subjected to suffer for want of water. The water crisis is due to replacement of one bioresource and that is forest. Forest/ Vegetation over the land is cleared for urbanization/ industrialization. This leads to a sort of distortion of chain action system of ecosystem functions for delivering goods and services. It is therefore becoming important issue deserves immediate study from all corners of the planet so that forest water relationship is well understood and ensures the very existence of both water and forest/vegetation. It is nothing uncommon history of world land use systems where over exploitation of land bearing soil, vegetation and water led to the destruction Maaya Civilization. Destruction of forest and ground water and faulty agriculture appeared to be the cause of such destruction. Time and again we need to remember that, we need to resort to a regular routine practice of resource conservation of any kind for building up a strong resource base—a security for future.
- • conservation
- • natural resources
- • nonnatural resources
- • bioresources
- • sustainability
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