III: Engineering and Applications for IoT Cloud Network

A Novel Framework of Smart Cities Using Internet of Things (IoT): Opportunities and Challenges

Rahul Chauhan

Department of CSE, CEHU, Dehraclun, India Preeti Mishra

Department of CSE, CEU, Dehradun, India R.C. Joshi

Cities have shown unprecedented growth in the last few years, bringing some major challenges of adequate services and infrastructure as cities seek to remain sustainable, healthy, employable, clean and safe places for people to live and work. Internet of things (loT) is a recent communication paradigm in which the devices are equipped with sensors, microcontrollers, transceivers, provided a unique identity (RFID, Barcode, etc.), wireless connectivity and a suitable protocol stack for a seamless connection over a data network. In this paper, a comprehensive 6-layer framework for smart cities is presented in terms of urban information systems incorporating the multiple layers specifying various tasks from sensing to cloud services and providing adequate services to the people. Five major aspects of smart cities are considered, namely, smart healthcare, smart traffic management, smart home, smart grid, noise, and air pollution monitoring. An individual edge server is designed for each mentioned service with suitable sensors and the wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Each designed WSN sends the sensor data to its edge server on a regular interval of time and further every edge server communicates with each other with a common set of protocols thus creating a smooth information exchange system. Data is being analysed using suitable machine learning algorithm which classifies the data. The future prediction can also be made based on classified data. Besides, various challenges and opportunities have been presented for implementing the proposed framework.

Introduction

With the increase in population, the cities grow and expand in a similar manner. To meet the ever increasing demand of a human being, a city needs to be smart in terms of infrastructure and living condition. So the demand of a sustainable, clean, safer and smart city is increasing with time, although there is no exact definition of a smart city. However, a smart city includes the optimal utilization of public and private resources and aims to provide the luxury in human life. Nowadays the smart city needs to provide the solutions for traditional problems like traffic congestion, waste management, water and air pollution, smart surrounding and environment and a healthcare sector [388]. A smart city paradigm is shown in Figure 8.1 with all the communication and network technology involved. It can be seen that for a smart city project, cloud computing, edge computing and Internet of things (loT) play a crucial role. Here the role of loT is to make everything connected over a network and thus the devices and equipment in the city are supposed to be equipped by the sensors and actuators. The ultimate aim of smart city is to provide the adequate services to society by best utilizing the resources and generate a cost effective solution of the traditional problem in healthcare, environment, etc. The use of loT is to make a smart city more connected, as loT is mainly concerned with the connecting of every object and equipment over the Internet with the help of sensor and actuator technology.

loT information and communication paradigm of multiple services in

Figure 8.1: loT information and communication paradigm of multiple services in

a smart city

Internet can be utilized in a more immersive and pervasive manner than ever. Thus it creates an opportunity for the stakeholder like the citizens, designer, developer, planner and all to contribute and grow in business perspective also. As the networking grows in the smart city, then is a demand for various communication technology a rises. Table 8.1 shows the common IEEE communication standard for an loT based application. It is strictly adhering to the standards which are supposed to be followed in loT based smart city. Whether it is of local network or wide area network, in smart city services, miscellaneous communication standard is required at various level of data flow. In the past a researcher came up with an idea of integrating an loT with a smart city and so a number of integrating framework a were proposed. Some of the contributions are such as Zanella et.all [388] present in a survey on smart city technologies with respect to a smart city called "Padova." Here they have presented a web service based loT framework with architecture, protocol and modern connecting technologies. In [181] a survey on fundamental loT elements with respect to smart city was carried out.

Similarly in [139] the architecture based on top-bottom approach is proposed where the service provider can play a role of the central information unit. It also gave an insight into the smart city communication technologies. But majority

Cloud Network Management: An loT Based Framework Table 8.1: IEEE communication standard for loT based applications

NFC

802.15.4

802.15.3

802.15.1

802.11a

802.11b

802.11g

LoRa

Network

Type

Peer to Peer

LR-WPAN

WPAN

WPAN

WLAN

WLAN

WLAN

NBIoT

Network

Size

NA

65535

245

7

30

30

30

Operating

frequency

13.65 MHz

2.4 GHz

2.4 GHz

2.4 GHz

5 GHz

2.4 GHz

2.4 GHz

433, 868 MHz

Range

0 - 0.2m

75-100m

100m

100m

120m

140m

140m

30 miles

Bit Rate

424 Kbps

250 Kbps

55 Mbps

3Mbps

54Mbps

11Mbps

54Mbps

50 Kbps

Modulation

Scheme

Modified Miller & Manchester

ASK

DSSS

QPSK

16-QAM 64-QAM

AFM

GFSK

8DPSK

BPSK QPSK 64-QAM

DBPSK

CCK

DSSS

DBPSK

DQPSK

OFDM

Spread

spectrum

Application

Area

RFID

Zigbee

6LoRaPAN

Images & Multimedia

Bluetooth

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi

LoRa WAN

of work is a carried out on network centric framework. So there is a need for data centric integrated framework which can solve the issue of big data and data congestion. Herein the major 6-layer framework is proposed.

IoT infrastructure for smart city

The use of information and communications technologies to make the urban city services and monitoring more aware, interactive, managed and efficient makes it a smart city. Here the basic building block of loT infrastructure is presented with three different domains, namely, network centric loT, cloud centric loT &data centric loT [388] with correspond to the available information & communication technologies (ICT). Due to the widespread use of wearable technology a new type of domain is created called human centric loT. As mentioned in the Figure 8.1, smart services require the management & communication technologies to achieve a common goal.

Network centric IoT

In terms of service the loT can be categorised in two different domains. First is 'object' based and second is 'Internet' based. Internet services is the main focus in Internet based architecture while data is being sensed & collected by the objects. In object based architecture [321], data and smart objects become the main backbone and multiple sensing devices are working together to realize the common goal. Networking of sensors and connecting to them on the Internet is required in both cases. RFID, Barcode and WSN are the integrated part of sensing layer which is the innermost layer on an loT network. RFID is associated with radio frequency identification technology available in the form of active and passive tags. Having a diverse application from security to the unique identification of smart devices in an loT network. Barcode is associated with the representation of data in the network in machine readable form and this uniqueness is created by varying the width and line space. Just like RFID it is also used for creating the unique identity and has an application in security and authentication. The interconnected network of diverse sensors with the ability to sense and act according to the programmable device is called wireless sensor network (WSN). As the sensor fabrication technology is getting cheaper, more compact and affordable sensors are commercially available for sensing applications.

With the available IPv4 addressing scheme, devices which are already in network are already getting accessed remotely. This is obvious to have a unique identity for the device which is new in the network. So the IPv4 is not sufficient enough to provide unique identification to individual devices which are expected to connect in loT based smart cities. So the scalability of addressing is not sustainable in the existing network. So IPv6 is the solution of providing unique identity to every device as its addressing range is in the order of 2128 bit.

Cloud centric IoT

The 'Internet' centric and 'things' centric are two major attributes of an loT based smart city framework. Cloud centric loT is mainly focussed on cloud computing paradigm wherein the cloud holds the centre stage. Ubiquitous computing and sensing can play a major role in the smart city framework. So the combined framework of ubiquitous sensing and cloud computing is more viable in smart city perspective [182, 149]. In cloud centric loT the sensing layer offered its services to the cloud server thus reducing the burden of data congestion and data analytics. Thus the majority of data filtering and data classification and data analytics are carried out at cloud server level. At cloud server level the miscellaneous tools of analytics, knowledge base of an artificial intelligence expert and machine learning tools can combined to create a more meaningful information and knowledge. In the smart city application, both public and private clouds are required with authorization in multiple applications. And this integration can be possible by Aneka which is a .NET based application development platform. There are various other platforms also for development like Microsoft Azure, Think speak by math-works and IBM Watson. They can provide the service of data analytics. A single seamless framework is, however, more essential in order to get sensed information. Such single seamless framework is proposed in figure

8.4 with sensing layer to the cloud computing layer integrating various smart city services together. In figure 8.2, a cloud centric loT platform is shown with cloud at centre stage. It has been estimated and observed that the loT sensors also play a vital role in generating a large amount of data. Scalability of sensors is dependent on the application and also the commercialization of sensing technology. To cover the large geographical area, a wireless sensor network is also going to play an important role wherein the data to the central cloud is being transferred by the help of the gateway. As shown in the Figure 8.2, it is a bidirectional control and information exchange process with the client application as the subscriber service [134, 214].

Data Centric IoT

By the year 2020, 600 zettabytes of data per year will be generated, as estimated by CISCO. Main source of this data will be the Automobile industry

(a) An example of Cloud service for loT, (b) A Generalised cloud

Figure 8.2: (a) An example of Cloud service for loT, (b) A Generalised cloud

centric loT platform

and energy and manufacturing sector. The radical transformation in the automobile industry forced us to accept the industrial revolution 4 and thus create a widespread sensor network and sensors data. Data centric loT mainly emphasis on the data flows starting from collection to the processing and visualization. loT sensors collect the data and this raw data will be processed for meaningful information. For smart city application the adaptability and robustness in the data analytics algorithm is highly required as there is a large variation in data generated in loT based smart cities. The data can be analysed at three different machine learning stages for the central cloud server as well as the fog level (edge level).

Human Centric IoT

The commercialization of smart sensors and wearable technology creates an opportunity for the scalability of human centric loT infrastructure. Starting from the measurement of heart rate, calories, number of steps taken, energy, speed, motion and many more the wearable technolog)' is everywhere. Easily accessible fitness band are generating an ample amount of data to get knowledge about human health in smart cities. Herein the smart devices, gazettes, and smart phone also play an important role in communicating the information captured by the person's smart wearable [130]. Human-centric loT applications are relevant to a wide variety of needs and innovative technologies. The contributions of this chapter are as follows:

To develop a comprehensive integrated 6-layer data oriented framework for smart city using loT.

  • • To integrate all communication technologies associated with smart city.
  • • Provide an insight into the challenges and opportunities in realising a smart city.

A Novel Framework of Smart Cities Using Internet of Things (loT) 13 7

• To provide a case study in terms of prototype development of smart parking system and loT centric pill bottle for better understanding of practical situations.

The rest of the chapter is organised in the following sections. The section 9.1 summarises the loT infrastructure based on three different approaches, namely, network centric, data centric & cloud centric. Next section describes the smart city hierarchy wherein the network requirements, communication protocols and features are mentioned. In section 8.3, a comprehensive 6-layer smart city framework using loT is proposed starting from data acquisition layer to the application layer incorporating various layers of data abstraction. In section 8.4, a case study is presented in terms of smart parking system and an loT based pill bottle to validate the practical scenario. In the last section various opportunities and challenges are discussed that are associated in realizing the smart city.

 
Source
< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >