Nanoparticles: Method of Production and Future Prospective


1 Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior, India

department of Biotechnology, Government Kamla Raja Girls P. G. (Autonomous) College, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drnehal This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it


Nanotechnology techniques have become popular day-by-day. Many physical and chemical compounds are used in synthesis of nanoparticles with different solvent system, but the use of such methods are harmful to healthy cells due to toxicity of byproduct, so various plant extract could be used for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Extract of plants have the property to act as both reducing agents and stabilizing agents in the synthesis of NPs with metals. Metals like silver and gold are one of the most attractive and useful for synthesis of nanoparticles because it have antimicrobial efficiency and biomedical properties. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AuNPs) with plant extract has an advantage over the other physical methods as it is safe, green synthesis, eco-friendly, and simple to use.


Nanotechnology has become one of the most popular technologies applied in all areas of science. Metal nanoparticles (NPs) produced by nanotechnology have received global attention due to their extensive applications in the biomedical and physiochemical fields. Plant extract and their effect on microorganisms have been extensively studied for synthesis of metal NPs and recognized as a green and efficient way for further exploiting antimicrobial agents as convenient nanofactories.

The term first introduced by Prof. Norio Taniguchi in 1974. He introduces the multidisciplinary nanotechnology covering the field of research and technology from physics, chemistry, and biology. The synthesis of NPs has introduced nanotechnology during the last two decades that produced novel compounds applied in various field of diagnostics, antimicrobial agents, drug delivery, textiles (clothing), electronics, bio-sensing, food industry, paints, cosmetics, medical devices and treatment of several chronic and acute disease such as cancer and AIDS.

Silver, gold, platinum, palladium, copper, zinc, and iron are the noble metals used in the synthesis of NPs of nano size. The application of NPs depends on properties such as size, shape, composition, crystalline nature, and structure. The NPs are metal atom clusters of range 1-100 nm, highly promising due to their wide range of applications in commercial products. The metal NPs are synthesized by various methods like physical, chemical, and biological. The biological synthesis of NPs involves Algae, actinomycetes, bacteria, fungi, and plants (Table 10.1) [9].

Table 10.1 Different Types of Metal Nanoparticles and Their Fields of Applications







Aluminum, Cesium, Cobalt, Copper

Industries: (Electronics, food & feed, space, chemical, textile, fertilizers, and pesticides)


Gold, Magnetite

Agriculture, biomedical, cosmetics, diagnostics, drug delivery


Nickel, Palladium

Energy science, enviromnent, healthcare, light emitters, mechanics


Platinum, Silicon

Medical devices, nonlinear optical devices, paints, and coatings


Silver, Zinc

Pharmacological, photo-electrochemical, phytomining phytoremediation, sensors, and tracers, single-electron transistors, wastewater treatment

Increasing microbial resistance against the antibiotics and remarkable antimicrobial effect of metallic NPs on this resistance strain is an interesting area for researchers [2].

For ancient times, plants have been a valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health, with more intensive studies for natural therapies. Today, the use of phytochemicals for the pharmaceutical purpose has gradually increased in many countries. According to WHO, medicinal plants would be the best source to obtain a variety of drugs. In developed countries, about 80% of individuals use traditional medicine, which has phytocompounds derived from different parts of medicinal plants [7].

The phytochemical present in a crude extract of various parts of plants with known antimicrobial properties has great significance in the therapeutic treatments. In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted in various countries to prove the efficiency of photochemical. Many plants have been produced many secondary metabolites, which are used as an antimicrobial agent. These products are known by their active substances like, phenolic compounds which are part of the essential oils, as well as in tanning. Due to the broad resistance of microorganism against antibiotics used for human pathogens in recent years motivated to scientist to search for new antimicrobial substances from various sources like the medicinal plants [11] It is well defined that the plant kingdom is an inexhaustible source of active phytoingredients valuable in the management of much intractable pathogenic disease [15].

Secondaiy metabolites as bioactive compounds are accumulated in all cells of the plant, but their concentration varies according to the plant parts, season climate, and particular growth phase. The leaf is one of the good sources of such compounds, and people are generally preferred for therapeutic purposes. Some of the active compounds inhibit the growth of disease-causing microbes either single or in combination [6].

Nature has long been an important source of medicinal agents. Natural sources have been used to synthesize a number of effective drugs, based on their use in traditional medicine. The plants have been used traditionally for the synthesis of pharmacologically active components from many centuries, and modern scientific studies have shown the existence of a good correlation between the traditional or folkloric application of some of the plants with antimicrobial activity [8].


Many physical and chemical methods used to synthesis of NPs with different solvent, but the use of such methods are harmful due to toxicity of byproduct in one or the many ways, so plants extract could be used for the synthesis of NPs.


The synthesis of phyto NPs is an emerging field of nanotechnology and biotechnology. Due to a growing need to develop environmental-friendly technologies in material synthesis, it has received increased attention [13]. Antimicrobial activity of phytocompound has motivated the researchers to synthesis the NPs using plant extract that allows better control of pathogenic microorganisms.


Nanotechnology is a part of biotechnology and an emerging field in the area of interdisciplinary research. Many chemical and physical methods are used in the synthesis of silver nanomaterials (AgNPs), but the development of reliable technology to produce NPs from Ag is an important phase of nanotechnology [10]. Several chemical methods have been developed for the synthesis of AgNPs. It includes a reduction in aqueous and nonaqueous solution, ultrasonic-assisted reduction, photo-induced or photo-catalytic reduction, microwave-assisted synthesis, irradiation reduction, the microemulsion method, etc. But chemical methods have various drawbacks, because of the use of various toxic solvents as well as the production of hazardous toxic byproducts, and use of high energy, which cause potential risks to human health and also to the environment [3, 5,14]. Presently, there is an emergent need to develop an environment- friendly nanoparticle that does not use toxic chemicals in the process of synthesis. For synthesis, microbial-mediated biological metallic NPs have recently been recognized as a hopeflil source for NPs [4].

The extraction of various plants was prepared by soxhlet method using different chemicals like ethanol, acetone, etc., as well as water and stores it for the synthesis of AgNPs. Aqueous solution of 10,000 ppm mol/L of AgN03 was prepared. The extraction was added gradually to different flasks containing AgN03 for bioreduction. The volume ratio of extraction to aqueous AgN03 was 1:10. After some time, the plant extraction to aqueous AgN03 resulted in a change of color within the formation of AgNPs, showing its signatory color. The bioreduction of Ag+ ions was monitored by periodic sampling by the UV spectrophotometry. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES (AGNPs)

UV-vis spectrophotometer were used to recorded optical absorbance (Systronics 2202 double beam model) in 200-800 mn wavelength range. It was observed that upon addition of the extract into the flask containing the aqueous silver nitrate solution, the color of the medium change the brown within two minutes. Change in the color indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles [1].


Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using extraction of plant parts is getting more popular due to the strong antibacterial action against pathogenic microorganism. As it is well-known, gold has extremely reducing power; thus the synthesis of AuNPs using plant extract is useful not only because of its reducing property, but also because it can produce large quantities of NPs. Extraction of plant parts may act both as reducing agents and stabilizing agents in the synthesis of NPs. Extraction from various plant parts such as leaf, stem, and fruit was prepared through soxhlet method, and Gold ion solution was prepared by diluting 16.6 pL of 30 wt% HAuC14 solution (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) in 50 mL of DDW to form a 0.1 g/L solution. GNPs were prepared by mixing 10 mL of the gold ion solution (1.0 mg HAuC14) with 0.75 mL of plant extract. In the case of GNP, the mixture changed color to a deep purple/red within a few seconds. The color change was due to GNP formation, as verified by UV-vis absoiption at 530 nm [12].


As any other technique nanotechnology has many advantages and disadvantages, the advantages with this technology are as follows:

  • • Nanotechnology is widely applicable to developed electronic products include nano transistors, nano diodes, OLED, plasma displays, quantum computers, and many more.
  • • Energy sector is also benefited by nanotechnology. The development of more effective energy-producing, energy-absorbing, and energy storage products in smaller and more efficient devices are possible due to nanotechnology. Synthesis of some small items like batteries, fuel cells, and solar cells can be built by different techniques but can be made to be more effective with this technology.
  • • Nanotechnology has another industrial benefit is the manufacturing sector that will need materials like nanotubes, aerogels, nanoparticles, and other similar items. Nanotechnology makes these materials stronger, more durable, and lighter than those that are not produced with the help of nanotechnology.
  • • In the medical world, nanotechnology is also seen as a boon since these can help with creating nanodrugs, is also called smart drugs. These help to cure people faster and without the side effects that other traditional drugs have. We will also find that the research of nanotechnology in medicine is now focusing on areas like tissue regeneration, bone repair, immunity, and even cures for such ailments like cancer, diabetes, and other life threatening diseases.


We will also need to point out the disadvantages or negative side of nanotechnology:

  • • Due to nanotechnology, it is the possible loss of jobs in the traditional fanning and manufacturing industiy.
  • • It is more accessible to make atomic weapons and made to be more powerful and more destructive just because of nanotechnology.
  • • Since these particles are very small, problems can actually arise from the inhalation of these minute particles, much like the problems a person gets from inhaling minute asbestos particles.
  • • Production from nanotechnology is very expensive. It is also a little difficult to manufacture the products with nanotechnology.


The development of multidrug resistant microbial strains and the appearance of strains which reduced susceptibility to antibiotics are continuously increasing. Such an increase has been attributed to indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive agents, intravenous catheters organ transplantation, and ongoing epidermis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The problem of multidrug resistance promotes to search for new antimicrobial substances from various sources like medicinal plants.

The plants have usually provided a source of novel drug or phytocompounds, as plant herbal mixtures have made large contributions to human health. The use of plant extracts with known antimicrobial properties can be of great significance for therapeutic treatment [11]. Considering the vast potentiality of plants as sources for antimicrobial drugs with reference to antibacterial agents, a systematic investigation was undertaken to screen the plants for antibacterial activity and production of NPs.

Extraction of various part of plant has the property to act as both reducing agents and stabilizing agents in the synthesis of NPs with metals. Metals like silver and gold are one of the most attractive and useful NPs because of various properties like antimicrobial efficiency and biomedical properties. Synthesis of AuNPs with plant extract has an advantage over the other physical methods as it is safe, eco-friendly, and simple to use. Plants extracts have huge potential for the production of AuNPs of wide potential of applications with desired shape and size. A detailed study is required to give a proper mechanism of AuNPs biosynthesis using phytomolecules present in different plant extracts, which will be helpful to improve the properties of AuNPs.


For many years ago, people have used silver for its antibacterial qualities due to different properties. In the case of silver and gold phytonanoparticles, the antibacterial effect is greatly enhanced by nanotechnology because of their tiny size. NPs usually have better or different qualities than the bulk material of the same element. NPs have an immense surface area relative to volume. Therefore, NPs synthesized by silver and gold can increase the antimicrobial effects of its host material (plant extract) due to nanotechnology.

NPs are the interesting field and requirement of the development of nanomedicine and bionanotechnology. Silver and AuNPs produced from different parts of the plant have received considerable attention owing to their attractive phytochemical and physicochemical properties. Phyto NPs worked against human pathogens more efficiently and utilized as therapeutic tools. It is essential to understand the properties of NPs and their effect on microbes to evaluate the clinical application.

Ag and Au NPs produced from various parts of plant extract have already been tested in various pathogenic microorganisms like Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria as an antimicrobial compound by researchers. Today, one of the emerging problems with a large number of the bacteria has yet developed resistance to antibiotics. In the future, increasing bacterial resistance is a major problem and needs to develop a substitute for antibiotics. Phyto-NPs are an attractive alternative because they are nontoxic to the human body at low concentrations and having broad-spectrum antibacterial nature. Phyto-SNP worked at veiy low concentrations and significantly inhibits the growth of pathogenic microorganisms compared to antibiotics with no side effects.

It is concluded in this chapter that it would lead to the establishment of some valuable phyto nanocompound that has to be used to formulate new, different, and more potential antimicrobial drugs of natural origin with no side effects. More studies are required to identify the biologically active phytocompounds and to evaluate the efficiency of the compound against pathogenic microorganisms associated with various human diseases.


  • antimicrobial compound
  • gold nanoparticles
  • human immunodeficiency virus
  • nanoparticles
  • phytocompound
  • silver nanoparticles


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