Modern Mechanobiology: Convergence of Biomechanics, Development, and Genomics

Shear Stress, Mechanosensors, and AtherosclerosisIntroductionShear Stress and Endothelial PhenotypeMechanosensors in AtherosclerosisPECAM1/VEGFR2/VE-Cadherin Mechanosensing ComplexTRPV4PiezolPrimary CiliaCaveolaeRaplGlycocalyxIntegrinsGPCREmerging New MechanosensorsConclusions and PerspectivesRole of Krüppel-Like Factors in Endothelial Cell Function and Shear Stress–Mediated VasoprotectionIntroductionKrüppel-Like FactorsKrüppel-Like Factor 2Regulation of KLF2 by laminar shear stressTargets of shear stress–induced KLF2Krüppel-Like Factor 4Future DirectionsAortic Valve Endothelium MechanobiologyIntroductionThe Aortic ValveAortic Valve Cell TypesCalcific Aortic Valve DiseaseAortic Valve MechanicsThe Role of Shear Stress in the Aortic Valve EndotheliumShear Stress Waveforms of Aortic ValvesAortic Valve Shear Stress Waveforms Are EstimatedAortic Valves Have Side-Specific Shear Stress WaveformsBicuspid Aortic Valves Have Abnormal Shear Stress WaveformsValve Endothelial Response to Shear StressDevices Designed for Studying VEC Response to Shear StressVEC Phenotype Is Shear Stress RegulatedSide-Dependent Hemodynamics Correlate with Side-Specific PhenotypesShear Stress-Regulated Mechanisms of Valve Homeostasis and DiseaseEndothelial to Mesenchymal TransformationeNOS, Nitric Oxide, Notch1, and Cadherin-11Krüppel-Like Factor 2Transforming Growth Factor-PConclusionsMechanotransduction of Cardiovascular Development and RegenerationIntroductionA Primer on Cardiovascular Anatomy and PhysiologyCardiovascular AnatomyHeart DevelopmentVascular DevelopmentMechanics of the Cardiovascular SystemCardiac CycleBlood MechanicsCardiovascular Extracellular Matrix CompositionEngineering Approaches to Studying Mechanotransduction in Cardiovascular DevelopmentCell SourcesPluripotent cellsMesenchymal-derived stem cellsProgenitor cellsExtracellular Matrix Regulation of Cardiovascular Development and RegenerationDecellularized tissueNatural extracellular matricesSynthetic matricesOxygen tension and mechanotransductionBioMEMSMicrofluidic platformsMicropatterned toolsD Printing TechnologyConclusions and Future DirectionsMechanotransduction in Heart FormationIntroduction: Blood Flow Dynamics and MechanotransductionMechanical Stimuli in the Cardiovascular SystemSensing Blood FlowResponses to Blood FlowCardiovascular DevelopmentHeart FormationHeart MalformationEffect of Blood Flow on Cardiac FormationAnimal Models of Cardiac DevelopmentEarly Embryonic Cardiac Remodeling in Response to Altered HemodynamicsEffects typically associated with altered wall shear stressEffects typically associated with altered blood pressureCardiac Malformation Phenotypes after Hemodynamic InterventionsConclusionsMechanotransduction in Cardiovascular Development and Regeneration: A Genetic Zebrafish ModelIntroduction of Zebrafish as a Cardiovascular ModelECG in ZebrafishMechanosensitive Pathways Modulate Vascular Development and Regeneration in ZebrafishNotch Signaling in Vascular RegenerationPKCε/PFKFB3 Pathway in Vascular RegenerationThe Wnt/Ang-2 Pathway in Vascular Development and RegenerationHemodynamic Fluid Force Promotes Cardiac Development via Mechanosensitive Notch Signaling in ZebrafishFuture PerspectiveThe Regulation of Metabolic Pathways by Mechanical ForcesInteraction and Synergy of Mechanosensitive PathwaysMechanotransduction of Different Mechanical Forces in Cardiac MorphogenesisConclusion and SummaryMechanosensitive MicroRNAs in Health and DiseaseIntroductionMicroRNA in Hemodynamics SensingMicroRNA in Extracellular Matrix RegulationMicroRNA in Stretch SensingMicroRNA in Additional DiseasesTargeting Dysregulated Mechanosensitive MicroRNAs in DiseasesBiomechanics in Cardiac Development Using 4D Light-Sheet ImagingIntroductionHemodynamic Shear StressCardiac TrabeculationZebrafish as a Model AnimalLight-Sheet TechnologyIntroduction of Light-Sheet ImagingApplication of Traditional Light-Sheet ImagingD Methods to Image in vivo Zebrafish Cardiac Mechanics and TrabeculationQuantification of Hemodynamic Shear StressIntroduction of CFDCombination of Light-Sheet Imaging and CFDApplication of Zebrafish Cardiac Mechanics and Trabeculation: MorphologyMechanobiology of Zebrafish TrabeculationIntroduction to Notch SignalingMechanotransduction of Notch, Including in vitro Cell StudiesApplications of Different Types of Shear Stress for Ventricular MorphologyNotch Signaling for TrabeculationLink Hemodynamic Shear Stress and Trabeculation: Pattern of Trabeculae
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