Application and Challenges of IoT in Healthcare

Introduction

Healthcare changes dramatically as a result of technological developments, from anesthetics and antibiotics to magnetic resonance imaging scanners and radiation therapy. Future technological innovation is going to keep remodeling healthcare, however, whereas technologies (new drugs and treatments, new devices, new social media support for healthcare, etc) can drive innovation, human factors can remain one of the persistent limitations of breakthrough. No predictions will satisfy everybody. There are no two ways regarding healthcare; technological developments in healthcare have saved innumerable patients and are continuously raising our quality of life. Not solely that, however; technology within the medical field has had a huge impact on nearly all processes and practices of healthcare professionals.

Advancements in medical technology have allowed physicians to better diagnose and treat their patients since the start of the professional practice of medicine. Because of the continual development of technology within the medical field, many lives are saved and also overall quality of life continues to increase over time. Although medical culture is comparable, there are dramatic technological changes, and truly, these changes would be exhausting to explain. Does anybody even know how an infusion pump works? They used to be clockwork and currently nearly everything contains a computer and includes a color screen and plenty of buttons. Implanted defibrillators that use telephone networks and internet sites to keep cardiologists up thus far with their patients are simply magic. New pharmaceuticals that change moods, change pressure, or kill bacteria: all are trendy magic. Some of what appears to us these days like science fiction becomes routine in the future, even perhaps in our lifetimes. However, much of today’s human story regarding relationships, hopes, error, grief, and denial is going to stay entirely recognizable within the future. We will still have authority gradients, we will still have dispute over human error, and patients can still be made helpless so they are easier to treat. The explanation is that technology is driven by the market.

If someone has an idea that they might convert into a physical realization that they can sell, they will additionally patent it or license it, and thereby build a return on their investment. This, in turn, can encourage them to seek out ways of making it smaller and cheaper, and selling it on a bigger scale. Thus it is technology-driven. In contrast, human culture does not build a profit for anybody.

The main reason behind healthcare is patients, and they should be at the center of it. In this article, we will discuss some of the technological trends and their challenges in healthcare. In this era of science, healthcare is nothing but a market for technology and in this case hospitals which act as consumers, and these consumers are ready to pay enough money for technological equipment which includes minimization of cost, division of labor and so on.

Medicine and Technology

In today’s world, technology plays a vital role in each business more than in our personal lives. Out of all of the industries in which technology plays a vital role, healthcare is certainly one of the foremost. This is answerable for saving innumerable lives all around the world.

Medical technology could be a broad field where innovation plays a vital role in sustaining health. Areas such as biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, information technology, the development of medical devices and instrumentation, and others, have all created vital contributions to increasing the health of individuals all around the world. From “small” innovations like adhesive bandages and articulatio-talocruralis braces to larger, additional advanced technologies like magnetic resonance imaging machines, artificial organs, and robotic prosthetic limbs, technology has beyond question created an unimaginable impact on medicine. In the healthcare trade, the dependence on medical technology cannot be exaggerated, and as a result of the development of those brilliant innovations, healthcare practitioners will still find ways to enhance their practice—from better diagnosing, surgical procedures, and improved patient care.

Information Technology and Medicine

Information technology has created vital contributions to our world, particularly within the medical trade. With the increased use of electronic medical records (EMR), telehealth services, and mobile technologies such as tablets and smart phones, physicians and patients are each seeing the advantages that these new medical technologies are bringing.

Medical technology has evolved from introducing doctors to new instrumentation to use within private practices and hospitals to connecting patients and doctors thousands of miles away through telecommunications. It is not uncommon in today’s world for patients to conduct video conferences w'ith physicians to save lots of time and cash that would otherwise be spent on traveling to a different geographic location, or send health information instantly to any specialist or doctor in the world.

With more and more hospitals and practices using medical technology such as mobile devices at work, physicians currently have access to any type of information they have—from drug information, analysis and studies, patient history or records, and so on—in mere seconds. And, with the power to effortlessly carry these mobile devices around with them throughout the day, they are never far away from the information they have. Applications that aid in distinguishing potential health threats and examining digital information such as x-rays and CT scans additionally contribute to the advantages that information technology brings to medicine.

Medical Equipment Technology

Improving the standard of life is one of the greatest advantages of integration new innovations into medicine. Medical technologies such as minimally invasive surgeries, better monitoring systems, and easier scanning instrumentation are permitting patients to pay less time in recovery and enjoy a healthy life for longer.

The integration of medical instrumentation technology and telehealth has also created robotic surgeries, where in some cases physicians do not even have to be compelled to be within the operating theater with a patient as surgery is performed. Instead, surgeons will operate out of their “home base”, and patients will have the procedure carried out in a hospital or clinic in their own hometown, eliminating the hassles and stress of health-related travel. With different robotic surgeries, the doctor remains within the room, operating the robotic devices; however, the technology allows for a minimally invasive procedure that leaves patients with less scarring and considerably less recovery time.

Technology and Medical Research

Medical scientists and physicians are perpetually conducting research and testing new procedures to help prevent, diagnose, and cure diseases as well as developing new medicines that may reduce symptoms or treat ailments.

Through the utilization of technology in medical analysis, scientists are able to examine diseases on a cellular level and manufacture antibodies against them. These vaccines against dangerous diseases like protozoa infection, polio, MMR and others prevent the unfolding of disease and save thousands of lives all around the globe. In fact, the World Health Organization estimates that vaccines save about three million lives each year, and prevent lots of others from acquiring deadly viruses and diseases.

D Printing

Today, it is possible to reproduce bones and a few internal organs using 3D printing technology. These artificial organs and bones will then be introduced into the body of the patient to replace diseased or problematic areas. Surgeons are also using

3D printing technology to gain a far better understanding of what is happening within their patients’ bodies. With a 3D model, it is considerably easier for a surgeon to carry out a more in-depth check of the problem and simulate a variety of solutions or possible operations that may be undertaken before performing the actual surgery on the patient.

Similarly, 3D printing has revolutionized medical specialty. With a 3D printer, obtaining a custom-made prosthetic hand or leg is considerably cheaper. It is currently possible to custom print prosthetic hands, for example, for a baby that needs totally different models as it grows, rather than having to travel and get a replacement prosthetic hand fitted every year. Plus, with the huge developments that are being created within the 3D printing industry, prices related to this technology are reducing every day.

One of the various forms of 3D printing that is utilized in the medical device field is bioprinting. Instead of printing using plastic or metal, bio printers use a computer- guided pipet to layer living cells, described as bio-ink, on top of one another to make artificial living tissue in a laboratory.

These tissue constructs or organoids can be used for medical analysis as they mimic organs on a miniature scale. They are also being trialed as cheaper alternatives to human organ transplants.

Another application of 3D printing within the medical field is making patient- specific organ replicas that surgeons can use to practice on before performing sophisticated operations. This method has been tried in order to speed up procedures and minimize trauma for patients.

This type of procedure has been performed with success in surgeries starting from a full-face transplant to spinal procedures and is starting to become routine practice.

Sterile surgical instruments, such as forceps, hemostats, surgical knife handles, and clamps, are often made using 3D printers. Not only will 3D printing manufacture sterile tools; some are provided by the traditional Japanese practice of origami that means they are precise and might be created extremely small in size. These instruments are often used to operate on small areas while not inflicting inessential extra harm to the patient.

One of the main aspects of using 3D printing instead of traditional production methods to provide surgical instruments is that production prices are considerably lower.

3D printing within the medical field may be used to manufacture prosthetic limbs that are custom-made to suit and match the user. It is common for amputees to wait weeks or months to receive prosthetics through the normal route; however, 3D printing considerably accelerates the method, making less expensive products that provide patients continuing functionality just as traditionally factory-made prosthetics.

Digitization of Health Records

Electronic Health Records (EHRs) replacing outdated paper records has been a vast game changer for everybody within the medical world. Medical assistants, medical coding professionals, and registered nurses are just some of the roles that are covered by this industry-wide implementation.

Nurses and technicians are answerable for inputting patient information into a central, digitized system. Medical billers and coders update patient records with diagnostic codes such as test results and submit medical claims to insurance corporations. Not only will patients access their records at the click of a button; it is equally ensured that mistakes are caught a lot more quickly without needing to pore over unreadable physicians’ handwriting.

In medicine, the primary information technology wave to hit the art and science of healing was the digitization of medical files, currently referred to as electronic health records (EHRs). The data contained in EHRs together with alternative sources has the potential to remodel medical practice by leveraging information, technologies, and healthcare delivery to improve the overall potency and quality of care at a reasonable price. The widespread adoption of EHRs has generated massive sets of information. The skillful merging of datasets collected from patients and physicians might be a viable avenue to strengthen healthcare delivery. These huge datasets are currently taken as a byproduct of medical practice instead of as useful assets that would play important roles in patient care. Currently, for example, most EHRs collect quantitative, qualitative, and transactional information; all of that could be collated, analyzed, and applied using sophisticated procedures and techniques that are currently available to make use of text-based documents containing disparate and unstructured data. The purposeful use of information is not a mystery to medical practice. From their humble beginnings, evidence-based undertakings are grounded within the principle that questions answered through the methodology were superior to anecdotes, expert opinion, panels, and testimonials. In terms of acknowledging the worth of information in guiding a rational and logical higher cognitive process, medicine has been at the forefront of adapting to modernity. However, physicians, nurses, and healthcare facilities are slow to embrace the most recent methods to completely use the information contained in EHRs.

There are many benefits of EHR which have been brought into healthcare. Some of them are listed below.

  • • Greater patient care
  • • Improved public health
  • • Ease of workflow
  • • Lower healthcare costs

Greater Patient care

EHR will mechanically alert the treating doctor to potential problems (such as allergies or intolerances to certain medicines). EHRs may be accessed from nearly any medical facility, which is very helpful for doctors assessing non-local patients.

Improved Public health

EHRs give valuable information to clinical researchers, serving to advance medical data and also the development of treatments for common health issues (such as viral outbreaks).

A standardized health IT system will give insights into how widespread an endemic is, enabling preventive measures (such as increased respiratory disorder shot production) to be put in place rather more quickly.

Ease of Workflow

Medical billers and coders are a number of the most-impacted allied physicians, and— according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics—demand for this sector is predicted to grow by 13% from 2016 to 2026. The introduction of EHRs has just made life easier for medical billers and coders.

Entering information into a processed system is way less time-consuming than paper-based strategies, and it reduces the danger of errors in patient information and money details. Accessing patient records digitally additionally permits medical committal-to-writing experts to work from home, increasing efficiency and productivity.

Lower Healthcare costs

According to recent research, the shift from paper-based patient records to electronic records reduces the costs of outpatient care by 3%.

Disadvantages of EHR

Theoretically, shifting to EHRs ought to change everything for the better. Sadly, there are some kinks that also need to be smoothed out. Instead of a records system that works fluidly, several networks lack interconnectivity, which suggests that several do not have the ability to speak to each other. Sometimes, this lack of communication will place patients’ health at risk.

Big Data

Big data is the buzzword nowadays. It is seen everywhere, particularly within the healthcare business. Historically, the massive quantity of data generated by the healthcare business was held as a hard copy. This information has the potential to support a wide range of healthcare and medical functions. The conversion of such information is termed big data. All of the data that is associated with patient healthcare and wellbeing makes up big data.

The wide diversity of big data and also the pace at which it is managed makes it overwhelming. It includes clinical information from CPOE and clinical decision support systems, physicians’ written notes and prescriptions, medical imaging, laboratory, pharmacy, insurance, and other administrative data; patient data in electronic patient records (EPRs); machine-generated or sensor data, such as from monitoring vital signs; social media posts, together with Twitter feeds, blogs, status updates on Facebook and different platforms, and web pages; and less patient-specific data, together with emergency care information, news feeds, and articles in medical journals.

Big data is extremely helpful within the healthcare business. Over the past decade, electronic health records (EHR) have been widely adopted in hospitals and clinics worldwide. Important clinical data and a deeper understanding of patient sickness patterns may be studied from such information. It will help to boost patient care and improve efficiency. Sometimes, this lack of communication will place patients’ health at risk.

With its diversity of format, type, and context, it is tough to merge big healthcare data into standard databases, making it tremendously difficult to process, and hard for business leaders to harness its important promise to remodel the industry.

Despite these challenges, many new technological enhancements are permitting healthcare big data to be born again into helpful, weighted data. By leveraging applicable software package tools, big data is informing the movement toward value-based healthcare and is open to outstanding advancements, even while reducing prices. With the wealth of knowledge that healthcare data analytics provides, caregivers and administrators will currently make better medical and monetary decisions while still delivering an ever-increasing quality of patient care. But adoption of big data analysis in healthcare has lagged behind alternative industries thanks to challenges like privacy of health data, security, sliced knowledge, and budget constraints. Meanwhile, 80% of executives from financial services, insurance, media, entertainment, manufacturing, and supply firms surveyed report their investments in big data processing as “successful,” and almost one in five declare their big data initiatives are “transformational” for his or her corporations.

There are at least two trends nowadays that encourage the healthcare business to embrace big data. The primary is the move from a pay-for-service model that

Sources of Big data

FIGURE 2.1 Sources of Big data.

financially rewards caregivers for performing procedures, to a value-based care model that rewards them for supporting the health of their patient populations. Healthcare data analytics can change the measuring and tracking of population health, thereby sanctioning this switch. The second trend involves exploiting big data analysis to deliver data that is evidence-based and can, over time, increase efficiencies and facilitate sharpening of our understanding of the most effective practices related to any disease, injury or ill health.

Undoubtedly, adopting the utilization of healthcare big data will remodel business, driving it from a fee-for-service model toward value-based care. In short, it will deliver on the promise of lowering healthcare prices while revealing ways in which to deliver superior patient experiences, treatments, and outcomes.

Using big data has multiple benefits such as

  • • Reducing healthcare costs
  • • Predicting epidemics
  • • Avoiding preventable deaths
  • • Improving quality of life
  • • Reducing healthcare waste
  • • Improving efficiency and quality of care
  • • Developing new drugs and treatments

Applications of Big Data in Healthcare

  • • Integrating big data with medical imaging.
  • • Telemedicine
  • • Reduce fraud and enhanced security
  • • Predictive analytics in healthcare
  • • Using health data for strategic planning
  • • Real-time alerting
  • • Electronic health records
  • • Enhancing patient engagement
  • • Smoother hospital administration
  • • Big data to fight cancer.
 
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