An Intelligent and Optimistic Disease Diagnosis: An IoT-Based Smart City Paradigm

Manash Sarkar, Saptarshi Gupta, Satya Sai Srikant, Anurag Singh and Aditya Agarwal

SRM Institute of Science & Technology


The enormous deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) is permitting smart city ventures and activities everywhere throughout the world. The IoT is a secluded way to deal with combined different sensors with all the ICT arrangements. More than 50 billion items will be associated and conveyed in savvy urban communities in 2020. The core of savvy urban community’s activities is the IoT interchanges. IoT is intended to help smart city idea, which targets using the most progressive correspondence advances to advance administrations for the organization of the city and the residents. Since the past few' decades, a virtual revolution has been growing rapidly with the use of simulation technology for clinical functions technologically. It becomes advanced within the computational area, speed and power, graphics and image rendering, show' systems, tracking, interface technology, tactile devices, and authoring package. Artificial intelligence (AI) has supported the creation of affordable and usable applications-based systems.

The IoT is an arrangement of interrelated figuring gadgets, mechanical and computerized machines, items, creatures, or individuals w'ho are given special identifiers (unique identifiers [UIDs]) and the capacity to move information over a system without expecting human-to-PC cooperation or human-to-human communication [1-5]. According to the International Telecommunication Union, “The IoT can be viewed as a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies (ICT).” Thing: With respect to the IoT, this is an object of the physical world (physical things) or the data world (virtual things), which is fit for being recognized and incorporated into correspondence systems [6]. IoT gadget can be used to control the various equipments used in building. We can monitor performance of electrical equipments remotely, and it can provide ON/OFF facility remotely. Pow'er meter of the smart building can be integrated with the IoT, which can provide less manpower to monitor the readings w'hich results in smart billing of power consumption in smart building [7,8]. Applications of this type consist of sensors and mobile app for sketch of map so that a user can search the area temperature, map, locations of different place, environmental monitoring, and so on [9]. IoT can be applied for environmental monitoring such as weather monitoring, wind speed, humidity, rain water measurement, and so on [10]. It can also be used for forest monitoring such as wild animal and wildlife monitoring [11-13], protection of crop from animals [14], and so on. Data handling is most crucial for IoT-based smart city. Based on the data analysis, expert system can make decisions in present circumstances. Data hierarchy at various layers in a smart city should maintain the privacy policies to sustain the trust among the entities of the environment. M. Sarkar et al. [15] in their research maintain the trust of a context-sensitive relational database. The remaining part of this chapter is as follows: Section 1.2 describes some previous relative works. Section 1.3 describes the overview of IoT with the basic architecture of the IoT communication network. Section 1.4 explains the application of IoT at various commercial fields. Proposed model is introduced in Section 1.5 followed by mathematical treatment in Section 1.6. Result and discussion are described in Section 1.7. Section 1.8 presents conclusion and future research scope.

Relative Work

IoT can be used by consumers in various fields, and some examples are smart cities, smart home, and elder care. These include connected vehicles, automation in homes, wearable device technology, healthcare, and appliances consisting remote monitoring [16]. IoT can be used for automation in cities, which can be turned into smart cities, and also home automation such as automatic lighting in cities and home, automatic air conditioning in summer season, automatic heating in winter season, enhanced security systems and antitheft system, automatic media access in smart home, and so on [17,18]. Sarkar et al. [19] proposed a trusted cloud service model for smart city using intelligence technique.

Some popular IoT devices for home applications are Bitdefender BOX IoT security solution, Google Home voice controller, Amazon Echo voice controller (second generation), Nest Cam Indoor camera, Mr. Coffee Smart Coffeemaker, SmartMat Intelligent Yoga Mat, Philips Hue, TrackR Bravo device, Linquet Bluetooth tracking sensor, Amazon Echo Spot smart alarm clock, BB8 SE Droid with force band, Nest smart thermostat, Amazon Echo Plus voice controller, Logitech Pop smart button controller, Nest Cam outdoor camera, AWS IoT Button programmable dash button, smart air quality monitor, smart household appliances, and so on. Some popular IoT devices for these applications are smart thermometer, blood pressure monitor, heart rate monitoring device, and so on [20]. Raafat et al. [21] in their research developed a smart home automation system. IoT can be used for taking care of elder persons at home with disabilities in health. IoT voice-controlled devices can be used to help elder persons at home. Sandeep et al. [22] described personalized heath recommendation system for people. Dudhe et al. explained the overview of IoT and various applications such as smart home, agriculture, healthcare, transportation, and so on. Also they mentioned some challenges for security issues in IoT [23]. Baker et al. surveyed about wearable healthcare system, challenges, and the future opportunities. Also they proposed a model for IoT healthcare monitoring system. Working of sensors such as photoplethysmographic pulse sensors, pressure-based pulse sensors, respiratory rate sensors, body temperature sensors, pulse oximetry sensors, and so on are explained. In addition, communication standards such as short-range communications and long-range communications standards are expanded [24]. Krishna and Nalini Sampath proposed a system to monitor patient health condition on real-time basis. Patients' health parameters such as body temperature, heart rate, percentage of oxygen saturation, and so on are fetched and transferred to the cloud and analyzed by authorized person using smartphone or laptop [25]. Chatterjee et al. proposed

IoT-based intelligent healthcare system to detect cardiovascular diseases. When a patient has cardiovascular diseases having abnormal heart rhythms, early detection of this can save the patient's life [26]. Fran et al. [27] in their article described how the concept of recommendation system could be applied within a smart city in the context of health application. In their paper, they considered collaborative improvement of the lifestyle quality.

Overview of IoT

IoT platform consists of physical and information world. Physical world consists of device, gateway, communication channel (via gateway, without gateway, and direct communication), and so on, and information world indicates data that are accumulated from sensor or some different means. The collected data from the sensor are actuated, captured, stored, and processed by the system and then can be accessed by users. Data analysis is also done in different stages.

Architecture of IoT in the Context of Communication Network

IoT reference model consists of four layers (Figure l. 1).

The four layers are as follows:

  • • Application layer
  • • Service support and application support layer
  • • Network layer
  • • Device layer

Application Layer

The application layer contains IoT applications program.

IoT reference model

FIGURE 1.1 IoT reference model.

Service Support and Application Support Layer

Generic support: The generic support capabilities can be used by different IoT applications such as data processing/data storage.

Specific support: The specific support capabilities can be used for diversified applications.

Network Layer

Networking capabilities: Networking capabilities provide network connectivity, such as access control, resource control for transport, management of mobility, authentication, accounting, and authorization.

Transport capabilities: Transport capabilities concentrate on giving connectivity for transport of IoT service, data information, application, control, and management information.

Device Layer

Device capabilities: Direct interaction with the communication network: Without using gateway, devices are able to gather, receive, and upload information. Indirect interaction with the communication network: With the help of gateway, devices are able to gather, receive, and upload information.

Gateway capabilities: A gateway provides a place to preprocess that data locally at the edge before sending the data onto the cloud. An IoT gateway is a physical device or software program that serves as the connection point between the cloud and controllers, sensors, and intelligent devices.

Application of IoT in the Context of Commercial View

IoT can possibly tame the weight of urbanization, make new understanding for city inhabitants, and make everyday living increasingly agreeable and secure.

Medical and Healthcare

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) (likewise called the Internet of health things), is the utilization of the IoT for therapeutic and well-being-related purposes, information assortment and investigation for research, and checking [28-31]. IoT healthcare devices can be monitored through remote location using Internet. Some IoT medical and healthcare devices are fitbit wristband, hearing aids, heartbeat and rate monitoring device, blood pressure monitoring device, and so on.


IoT can be used in intelligent transportation system, smart GPS tracking, vehicle control, smart vehicle management, smart parking, smart traffic control, and smart electronic toll collection and road assistance [32-34].

Recently, the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) has developed the National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) system to fulfill electronic tolling needs in India. They developed FASTag as payment mode at toll gates all over the India. FASTag is a device that uses RFID (radio frequency identification) technology for payments from moving vehicles. FASTag is affixed on the windscreen of the vehicle and enables to make the toll payments directly from the account which is linked to FASTag. This technology saves fuel and waiting time at the toll gate, and also we can monitor the account status and the deductions using mobile phone sitting at a remote location [35].

V2X Communications

In vehicular correspondence frameworks, vehicle-to-everything (V2X) correspondence comprises of three fundamental parts: vehicle-to-vehicle correspondence, vehicle-to-foundation correspondence, and vehicle-to-person on foot interchanges. V2X correspondence is the initial step to self-sufficient driving and associated street framework. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an agency of the U.S. federal government, estimates that this technology can reduce the read accidents and traffic congestion. V2X-type communication can be implemented with the help of WLAN and cellular technology [36].


There are various IoT applications in farming [37,38] such as gathering data about rainfall, temperature, wind speed, humidity, infestation caused by various reasons, and content of the soil. These data can be used to automate farming techniques, which can be a new revolution in agriculture [39]. Nowadays, development of agricultural drone is quite popular, which can help in farming and monitoring of different entities in the field [40]. In August 2018, Toyota Tsusho started an organization with Microsoft to make fish-cultivating devices utilizing the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies associated to water management [41].

Energy Management

As home appliances or industry appliances, several devices are in use for daily life, and those devices are consuming energy from a power line, so monitoring of power consumption is needed in periodic time span. With the help of IoT monitoring, analysis of power consumption in house or industry is possible, and also the readings can be taken from a remote location. Several methods are proposed nowadays [42,43] for implementing energy management through IoT. This can also save energy consumption.

Living Lab

Living Lab combines and integrates research and innovation ideas with the help of public-private-people partnership. At present, several IoT-based Living Labs are providing innovative and technological products to the society. The IoT-based Living

Lab provides public networks, open infrastructure, and data for developers to accelerate emerging IoT innovations for smart city solutions [44,45].

Internet of Battlefield Things

The Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) is a venture begun by the U.S. ARL (Army Research Laboratory) that spotlights on the essential science identified with IoT that lift the capacities of fighters [46]. In 2017, ARL propelled the IoBT Collaborative Research Alliance (IoBT-CRA) and made a working cooperation among army specialists, industry, and college to propel advances in army activities [47-50].

Ocean of Things

The ocean of things venture is a DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)-driven program intended to build up an IoT crosswise over huge sea regions for the motivations behind gathering, checking, and investigating ecological and vessel action information. The venture involves the sending of around 50,000 buoys that house a passive sensor suite that self-sufficiently identifies and tracks military and business vessels as a major aspect of a cloud-based network [51].

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