Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy: Prevarications and Evasions

The Battlefield of Foreign Aid as Foreign PolicyPresidential-Congressional Struggle over Foreign AidThe Conflict within Congress over Foreign AidBureaucratic Politics in Foreign Aid AllocationsAdministering Foreign Policy: Who Is in Charge of the Bureaucracy?Inception of Contemporary Human Rights Policy: The Fraser CommitteeBureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs (HRHA)Country Reports on Human Rights PracticesHuman Rights LegislationForeign AidBilateral Economic AidBilateral Security AssistanceMultilateral AidThe Prevaricator Who Set the Bar: Richard Nixon (1969–August 1974)NotesReferencesU.S. Human Rights Policy during the Cold War: A Historical OverviewThe Ford Administration (August 1974–1977)The Carter Administration (1977–1981)The Reagan Administration (1981–1989)ConclusionNotesReferencesU.S. Human Rights Policy in the Post-Cold War Era: A Decade of Lost OpportunitiesThe Bush, Sr. Administration (1989–1993)The Clinton Administration (1993–2001)ConclusionNotesReferencesThe Prevaricator in Chief: George W. Bush (2001–2009)Torture (and Other Violations of Human Rights) and Its JustificationBush’s Wars on TerrorCoalition of the WillingWomen’s Rights as Validation for the Global War on TerrorForeign Aid as a Tool in the Global War on TerrorEconomic AidMilitary AidDOD’s Increasing Role in Foreign AidCongressional Actions and InactionsBureaucratic Policymaking and the Presidential AgendaConclusionNotesReferencesThe Prevaricator of Change: Barack Obama (2009–2017)Similarities and Continuities with George W. Bush’s Human Rights Policies in the War on Terror/Overseas Contingency OperationsPermanence of Terror Policy: Guantánamo, Military Commissions, and RenditionForeign Aid Remains a Tool of Counterterrorism“Things Are Going to Get Worse”Traitors or Whistleblowers: The Government’s Desire for Secrecy versus the Public’s Right to KnowBagram: Obama’s GitmoDrones and Targeted KillingFailure to ProsecuteImprovements in Human Rights PoliciesInterrogation MethodsLGBTQ RightsCongressional Actions and InactionsBureaucratic ResistanceConclusionNotesReferencesA Prevaricator Who Told the Truth: Donald Trump (2017–)A Billionaire as the Voice of the Everyman (and Perhaps Woman)Governmental Policies toward Socially Constructed GroupsThe DeviantsScapegoating Muslim Refugees and Mexican ImmigrantsThe Nasty Women: Dismantling Women’s Reproductive RightsLGBTQ CommunityTerrorists: Continuity with the Policies of Torture and AssassinationForeign Aid as a Discarded Tool of Foreign PolicyMilitary Aid and Arms Sales Making America Great AgainCongressional Push Back to Trump’s AgendaBureaucratic Resistance to Trump’s AgendaUse of Loyalty Oaths and the Presidential PardonConclusionNotesReferencesThe Future of U.S. Human Rights PolicyComplying with Human Rights NormsThe Populist TurnApocalyptic Predictions: Sikkink vs. HopgoodPrevaricating PolicyNotesReferences
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