The Routledge Handbook of People and Place in the 21st-Century City

The Power of Cities on People–Place RelationshipsSection 1 Vibrant CitiesSelf-Conscious and Unselfconscious Place-Making in CitiesIntroductionThe Nature of Places: An Ecological Psychology ApproachThe Qualities of Places as Behavior SettingsThe City as a Behavior Setting and a Set of Behavior Settings - As a Place and a Set of PlacesUrban Morphology and Place-MakingIssues in Making or Remaking PlacesConclusionReferencesUsing Places/Exchanging PlacesIntroductionFormal and Informal Place-Making PracticesUsing or Exchanging PlacesWho’s Making Place in Melbourne?ConclusionReferencesFestival Bodies: The Role of the Senses and Feelings in Place-Making PracticesIntroductionMaking PlaceThe Significance of the Senses in Place-Making EventsFestivals, the Senses and FeelingsStreet Parades and Place-Making through the SensesConclusionAcknowledgmentReferencesA Sound Understanding of Healthy CitiesIntroductionPlace and the Experience of PlaceWell-Being, Sound, and ‘Sense’ of PlaceSoundscapesListen to the Urban SoundscapeHow City-Makers Can Compose the Urban SoundscapeLegislation, Policy, and GuidelinesUrban Design and InfrastructureAcoustic Assessment ToolsPlace-Making and Sound Art InitiativesAwareness, Education, and ResearchConclusionReferencesArt, Communities, and Housing Form: A Practitioner’s PerspectiveIntroductionTower Blocks: The Art of Place in an Inner Urban CommunityTownhouses and Bungalows: Creative Interpretations of the New SuburbiaThe Gunyah and the Humpy: Indigenous Memories of Place in New Housing AreasMcMansions: Art and Aspirational SuburbiaConclusionReferencesSection 2 Diverse CitiesPushing Diversity beyond RecognitionIntroductionDiversity-Thinking in Urban Studies and PracticeSeeing Diversities Sitting Together Instead of Singled OutEncounterInvisibility and the StrangerThe Urban CommonsConclusionAcknowledgmentReferencesDiversity in Density: Encouraging Participation in Higher Density LivingIntroductionDiversity and CommunityDiversity in DensityIntercultural Relations in Apartment Buildings: Strata Managers’ PerspectivesFacilitating Participation across Cultures in Dense Residential EnvironmentsConclusionReferencesKnowing Their Place: Children, Young People, and CitiesIntroductionConceptualizing Children and Young People as Citizens with Rights to the CityHistorical Approaches to Children and Youth in Urban PlanningSocial and Environmental Trends in Children’s use of Urban Environments in Western SocietiesTheme 1: Restricted Independent MobilityTheme 2: Spatial Disconnection and Diminished Neighborhood RangesTheme 3: Reduced Contact with NatureTheme 4: The Problem with PlaygroundsTheme 5: Less Time with ChildrenConclusionReferencesExercise Space Planning and Design for an Aging Society: A Case Study of Space, Exercise Behavior, and Cognitive Function of Older Women in TaiwanIntroductionDementia Prevention and Exercise BehaviorUrban Exercise SpacesCase Study: Tainan City, TaiwanQuestionnaire DesignSurvey Results: Descriptive Statistics AnalysisDemographic Information AnalysisExercise Behavior AnalysisCorrelation AnalysisOverall Survey DiscussionConclusionReferencesCulture, Citizenship, and Emplaced PracticeIntroductionPlace and Territorial IdentitiesLocating Place and Placing PracticePlace as a Site of World-MakingFostering Cross-Cultural DialogEnvisioning Intercultural HorizonsMobilizing Cultural CoalitionsConclusionReferencesSection 3 Equitable CitiesThe Experience of Place and Displacement in the 21st-Century CityIntroductionPlace Attachments, Sense of Belonging and Their DisruptionDisplacement as a Fundamental DisruptionDisplacement and the Right to the CityMultiple Expressions and Experiences of DisplacementPhysical DisplacementDisaster-Induced DisplacementPublic Housing RedevelopmentSymbolic DisplacementResistance to DisplacementConclusionReferencesPropositions for More Just Urban Public SpacesIntroductionThe Production of Public Space in Capitalist CitiesSocial and Spatial Justice in the City: A Brief ReviewSocial Justice and Public Space: Five PropositionsPublic Space and Distributive JusticePublic Space and RecognitionPublic Space, Encounter and Interactional JusticePublic Space and Care and RepairPublic Space and Procedural JusticePutting Our Propositions to Work: Two ExamplesStreets and Sidewalks in New York CityBroken Windows and the Policing of GraffitiConclusionReferencesPlace-Based Activism: Getting out of the Frying Pan of Citizen Disengagement or into the Fire of Territorial Localism?IntroductionPlace-Based ActivismFuzzy GovernanceLocalismLessonsConclusionReferencesTransforming Traditions: Place, Ideology, Development, and Planning in BaliIntroductionThe State and Cultural ConservationCulture and IdeologyThe Unselfconscious ProcessCulture and IdentityConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesConsuming Heritage or the End of Tradition: Challenges in the Transition from Vernacularism to GlobalizationIntroductionDream LandscapesCultural Heritage and HistoryNostalgic PlacesConclusionReferencesSection 4 Smart CitiesThe Infrastructure of PlaceIntroductionPlace and Its OthersAntiquity: The Point and the LinesModernity: Toward Non-Place?Networks: Spiritual and MaterialFlight PathsMediaConclusionReferencesExploring the Use of Digital Technologies in Participatory Landscape Planning ProcessesIntroductionDemocracy and ParticipationDigital Participation and Sustainable Landscape PlanningWhat Makes Digital Participation Successful?The Multifaceted Qualities of Digital EngagementPurposeMeaningEngagementUncovering the Qualities of Good Digital ParticipationCase Study 1: FolketrâkkCase Study 2: The Community Design ProjectCase Study 3: Participatory ChinatownCase Study 4: CitySwipeConclusionReferencesOvercrowding and Domestic Use of Public SpaceIntroductionBackgroundAccess to Water in Public SpacesAccess to Power in Public SpacesRemote and Urban Spatial Justice: OvercrowdingStreet Furniture Use ScenariosScenario 1: BreakfastScenario 2: BelongingsScenario 3: Morning teaScenario 4: LunchScenario 5: WorkScenario 6: RestAn Amenity-Rich CityConclusionReferencesTel Aviv: Making Place through TechnologyIntroductionTel Aviv’s Unique Geography and Geopolitical PositionCreating the Brand: The Importance of IdentityInternational Recognition of the Tel Aviv Brand: Going GlobalReviewing the Development of the Smart City MovementICT and the City ExperienceA Smart City Best Practice Model: Community EngagementHow the Digi-Tel Card WorksExpansion and Internationalization of the Digi-Tel CardConclusionReferencesWeb 2.0 Social Media: Supporting People–Place RelationshipsIntroductionPlace and Place AttachmentSocial Media Platforms: Inclusive Spaces for People and PlaceSocial Media and People-Place RelationshipsCase Study: Parklets and TwitterVignettesThe Changing Nature of People-Place Relationships: What That Means for Individuals and Place ManagersConclusionReferencesSection 5 Resilient CitiesPlace Attachment, Well-Being, and ResilienceIntroductionPlace Attachment Can Undermine ResiliencePlace Attachment-related Risk-blindnessPlace Attachment Meanings Can Interfere with AdaptationPlace Attachment Can Undermine Individual ResiliencePlace Attachment Can Support ResiliencePlace Attachment Can Motivate Place StewardshipPlace Attachment Can Enhance Individual ResiliencePlace Attachment Can Provide Resources to Help Individuals Recover after a StressorPlace Attachment Can Guide the Adaptive Response to Help the Place and Community RecoverConclusionReferencesThe Importance of Prioritizing People and Place in Urban Post-Disaster RecoveryIntroductionThe Context: Rapid Urban Growth, Increasing Risk, and an Aid System Needing to AdaptThe Rise of ResiliencePutting People at the CenterApplying People-Centered Resilience to Place: The Area-Based ApproachConclusionReferencesRebuilding After Disaster: People, Processes, and Five Percent TechnologyIntroductionNo Community Starts from ScratchRain in the DesertShelter Response: Better and More Resilient BuildingThe 5 Percent Cement BlockTechnology as Support, Not CorePeople’s Knowledge is Already Place-Sensitive and SustainableTapping the Ingrained Assets of CommunitiesAspiration-setting in Appropriate Directions Helps Build Sustainability, But Is Difficult to Achieve Against Consumerist Market ForcesLocal Change Agents Are Efficient Catalysts, though the Setting Has Its Political HuesCommunity Participation Builds Momentum ExponentiallyIndigenous Knowledge Is Appropriate to Context, but Is under StressLocal Materials Are Low-cost Both Financially and Environmentally, but Not FreeTime-tested Designs are Safe and Comfortable, Challenged Only by Exposure-Fed AspirationsConclusionReferencesMaking Place by Making Things Again?: How Artisanal Makers are Reshaping Place in Post-Industrial Detroit and NewcastleIntroductionThe Rise of the Maker MovementPlace and Place-Making ConceptsMaking Things and Making Place in NewcastleMaking Things and Making Place in DetroitHow Is Place Being Remade through Maker Culture?ConclusionReferencesResilience in a Warming Climate: Public Place-Making for Health and Well-Being in Hot CitiesIntroductionPlace-Making in a Warming Climate for Health and Well-BeingThe Sociocultural Context of Place and Heat-VulnerabilityPriorities for Reducing Heat-VulnerabilityHeat and Urban EnvironmentsHeat and Human BehaviorResilience: Traditional and Emerging PracticesHeat-Sensitive Principles for Healthy CitiesPrinciple 1: Heat MitigationPrinciple 2: Heat AdaptationPrinciple 3: EquityPrinciple 4: Walkability and Connectivity in Hot ConditionsPrinciple 5: Quality Public Domains in Hot ConditionsConclusionReferencesUrban Green Space: Places Supporting Urban ResilienceIntroductionWhat is Resilience?Supporting Cities to Become More ResilientUrban Green Space as PlaceConnecting Green Places to Urban ResilienceUrban Green Space, Place, and ResilienceNatural System ResilienceEconomic System ResilienceCommunity ResilienceIndividual ResilienceConclusionReferencesMeeting the Demands for Change, Adaptation, and Innovation in 21st-Century CitiesIntroductionThe Pressures on People and PlaceAmbitions for People-Place Relationships in CitiesSupporting Health and Well-beingIncluding an Engaged CitizenryValuing Social LifeUsing Smart Technology and Knowledge ExchangeConclusionReferences
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