Arguing, Reasoning, and Thinking Well

Why Study Argument?“Kiddie” ArgumentsArguing as a Developmental ProcessThe Importance of Context and CultureAdult ArguersAims and Goals of This BookWhy Learn About Argumentation?Argumentative OverturesSummaryNotesReferencesArguing EthicallyThe MeltdownArgument Is Not a Dirty WordArguing (In)Competently: Traits and Behaviors of Effective and Ineffective ArguersGoals: Winning Isn’t the Only ThingFinal Thoughts: You’ve Got the PowerSummaryReferencesArgument Theories, Models, and DefinitionsConceptualizing Argument: What Is an Argument Anyway?Theories and Models of ArgumentStrengths and Limitations of the Toulmin ModelSummaryNotesReferencesThe Nature of Critical ThinkingDumb and DumbererIgnorance Versus Stupidity: No Duh!What Is and Isn’t Critical Thinking?Conceptualizing Critical ThinkingFrom Tweeters to Twits? Is Technology Making Us Stupid?Technology May Be Making Us SmarterSummaryReferencesBuilding Blocks of ArgumentDon’t Build Your Arguments Out of StrawClaim Spotting: What’s Your Point?Types of Claims: Different Claims for Different AimsConfusing ClaimsProof: The Grounds for ArgumentsHave You Got a Warrant?All-Purpose WarrantsSummaryAnswers to Types of Claims from Box 5.1ReferencesEvidence and ProofWhere’s Your Proof?Prove It to MeField Dependent and Field Invariant ProofTests of EvidenceStatistical ProofSummaryNotesReferencesInformal ReasoningOrdinary, Everyday ReasoningInductive Reasoning Defined: Take a LeapCausal Reasoning: But Why?Reasoning by Analogy: Life Is Like a Box of ChocolatesSign Reasoning: If It Walks Like a Duck, and Talks Like a Duck . . .Generalization: White Men Can’t JumpExample: Gimme a For InstanceSummaryNotesReferencesFallacies in Reasoning, Part 1: The “Big Five”When Good Arguments Go BadFriends or Foes? A Pragmatic Approach to FallaciesThe Usual Suspects: The Big FiveSummaryNotesReferencesFallacies in Reasoning, Part 2Iffy Assumptions: Fallacies Involving Questionable PremisesDiversionary Tactics: Verbal Sleight of HandAppeals to Emotion: You’re Not Using Your HeadFallacies of Presumption: Shifting the Burden of ProofFallacies Involving Ambiguity: It’s Not Cheating if You Don’t RememberSummaryNotesReferencesFurther Reading on Fallacies in ReasoningJudgment, Decision Making, and Problem SolvingA Curious Rule of Thumb (. . . and Fingers)Multiple ChoicesRational Models of Decision Making: Tapping into Your Inner Math GeekHeuristics and Biases: Decision-Making SnagsA Procedural Approach to Problem Solving and Decision Making: Baby StepsDecision Making in Groups: Are Two (or More) Heads Better Than One?SummaryNotesReferencesDeductive ReasoningDeductive Versus Inductive Reasoning: A Whole Different AnimalWhat Is Formal Logic?Are People Naturally Logical?Cognitive Fitness: Don Your Thinking CapDeduction in Everyday Life: It’s What the Cool Kids Are DoingDeduction in Specific Fields and Contexts: Putting Logic to WorkValidity and InvaliditySyllogistic Reasoning: It’s Only LogicalSummaryNotesReferencesEffective Advocacy and RefutationSorry to Burden You: Argumentative Obligations and ResponsibilitiesPrima Facie Case: The Opening SalvoBurden of Rebuttal: Get Ready to RumbleArguing about ArguingCase Building: On Solid GroundInvention: Discovering the IssuesStock Issues: Touching All the BasesValue Claims: The Good, the Bad, and the UglyFactual Claims: Just the Facts, Ma’amDefinitional Claims: War of WordsSummary and ConclusionReferencesAppendix: Sample Debate Formats for In-Class DebatesSimple Pro–Con Format (For Many Speakers)Oxford Style (Four-Person) DebateLincoln–Douglas (One-on-One) DebateAuthor IndexSubject Index
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