Modern Diplomacy


The changing nature of diplomacyTasks of diplomacyContribution to international orderCounter-diplomacyDevelopment of diplomacyDiplomatic settingMembershipPlayers in diplomacyNon-governmental actors: the changing post-2000 landscapeOverseas territoriesBlocs and groupingsDiplomatic processOpen and secret diplomacyNotesForeign policy organisationCentral organisation of foreign policyFunctions of foreign ministriesDevelopment of foreign ministriesWebsites: foreign ministry, embassies and delegationsWikileaks: implications for foreign ministries and embassiesThe foreign ministryReorganisation of foreign ministriesInternational economic policy: trade and financeRepresentationOther forms of representationRepresentation and public relationsAbnormal relations and non-recognitionSummaryNotesDiplomatic methodsDiplomatic methodsCooperative strategyCommunications strategiesOperational environmentResistance and delayCounter strategiesExpansion strategyActive strategyChoice of methodsDiplomatic spaceBilateral relationsMultilateral relationsVisitsUsing all opportunities: side diplomacyThe effectiveness of diplomacy by visitsGetting the message across: signallingInitiativesCounter-diplomacyCoercive diplomacyNotesNegotiationClassification by subject matterMultilateral negotiationsInfluences shaping negotiationsFraming negotiationsBasic modelProcessComplex multilateral diplomacyConsensusIssue learning curve in negotiationsThe dynamic of negotiationCharacteristics of certain negotiationsCase studies in negotiationsMultilateral conference negotiationsInternational trade negotiationsRegional organisationsTrade negotiation issuesLarge RO negotiations Key features in four categories of trade negotiationRegional organisation (RO) - single state (advanced economy)Developing country-RO negotiationsPan-African integration and regional organisationUK-EU Brexit negotiationsBackgroundNegotiations: Brexit Phase 1Diplomatic styleTransparencyAgendaBrexit negotiation processAdministrative arrangementsIssue learning curveMomentum in negotiationBrexit impasse first phaseConclusionDevelopments in international agreementsNotesDeveloping diplomatic practiceDiplomatic styleRegime, representation and diplomatic styleDiplomatic style: international institutionsPersonal diplomacy - the growing impactBilateralismSummits and conferencesMultilateral diplomacy: consensusConsensus in practiceQuiet diplomacyActive strategiesInnovation and NGOsCounter-public diplomacyOpen and secret diplomacyConclusionNotesGroups and networksBlocs and groupings Western economic summitsEU: development of diplomatic practiceDiplomatic actor: external role - one voice and representationEU representationChanging blocs and groupsFourth India-EU Summit joint press statementG-20Network groupsBRICSEmergence of new groupingsGeostrategic economic diplomacyDefensive economic groupingsParallel diplomacySouth-south diplomacyConclusionNotesRegional organisations and diplomacyRegional organisations post-2000: a comparison with post-1945MembershipAccreditation other than full membershipSuspension of membershipWithdrawal from regional organisationsExpanding agendas of regional organisationsRegional and international agendasRegional organisations and international rolesInstitutional dimensions of regional organisationsInternational agendas and regional organisationsMultilateral institutionsInstitutional dimensions: sector cooperationExternal actorsBilateral relationsCase studies: the Paris MemorandumAfrican UnionASEAN: an institutional labyrinthNew organisationsNotesCyber-diplomacyThe cyber settingInstitutional changesThe battle for ideas and influenceOther communications developmentsThe disguised stateConduct of diplomacyCommunication, civil conflicts and the role of the ambassadorBilateral relations: information strategiesThe information setting and smaller powersMultilateral diplomacy: documentary management and draftingInternational fraudInternational regulation of the cyber environmentConclusionNotesInternational financial relationsThe Bretton Woods systemInstitutional arrangementsThe evolution of the IMFSpecial drawing rightsEnd of Bretton WoodsPost-Bretton WoodsInstitutional developmentsInterim CommitteeDevelopment CommitteeGroup of 24Development of fund facilitiesShort-term facilitiesEnlarged access policyQuotas and IMF resourcesMultilateral debt restructuringParis ClubInitial responses to the debt crisisPersonal diplomacy: the IMF managing directorThe debt restructuring processTransition: international debt managementThe search for solutionsNew priorities and approachesInternational IMF crisis lendingSale of goldIMF role in debt managementEurozone debt and the IMFIndirect diplomacy: the emergence of the FSBFinancial diplomacy and low-income countriesCase study: Kenya - the debt trapKenya Development DebtThe IMF’s evolving roleNotesTrade, foreign policy and diplomacyBreakdown of the Doha Round of WTO trade talksRegional trade agreementsRTA negotiationsRegional trade agreements and geopoliticsDeveloping countries in the international trade settingEconomic preference arrangementsBilateral trade and economic relationsLogistics diplomacy: the new dimension of diplomacyPort as embassyInternational trade disputesLinkage in international tradeTrade disputes: market accessOther sources of market access trade disputesResource boundary and territorial disputesThe WTO: dispute settlementConclusionNotesEnvironmental diplomacySettingMultilateral conference typologyPlayers in environmental diplomacyFormatStakeholdersDelegationsInternational institutions: stakes and influenceConsensusBlocs and groupsThe dynamic of environmental negotiationsConcession and compromiseInternational environmental agreements and other measuresNotesEnvironmental diplomacy: case examplesWorld Bank loan to Casablanca municipalityMultilateral negotiation DesertificationClaims to special statusFinancial issuesLand-based sources of pollutionFailure of the Canadian initiativeStraddling and highly migratory fish stocksBackgroundPlayersIssues: building regimesCompatibility of conservation measuresEnforcementNegotiation processSummarySmall island developing statesBackgroundAlliance of small island statesBarbados Preparatory CommitteeDevelopment of AOSISInternational agreements: implementation issuesAnnexation of the Paris MOUThe Commission strategyChad-Cameroon petroleum development projectClimate change: case study of drafting a compromiseThe Durban compromiseThe draftGeneral discussionNotesDisaster and emergency diplomacyInternational disaster reliefIndian Ocean tsunamiCommunications: the limits of interconnectednessNational perspectivesInternational disaster coordinationNational foreign policy sensitivityDebt relief: finding appropriate solutions in crisisOrganisation issuesInternational organisations: early warning systemsNotesDiplomacy and securityUN Security Council: peacekeeping and international stabilityMandateConsentUN forces and military capabilityExit from missionsAllies, alliances and diplomacyRedefining securityRedefinition strategiesSecurity of small statesSecurity: embassy and diplomatNotesDiplomacy and mediationMediation: meaning and definitionsThe mediatorsThe development of categoriesMediation strategiesProcessContentMediation and forceLoss of credibility and biasRejection of mediationSuccessful mediationNotesThe diplomacy of normalisationDefinition of normalisationSudden tension and retaliatory actionCommunicating the state of relationsBreaks in diplomatic relationsEconomic indicators of abnormal relationsThe normalisation processCarry-over effectsApproaches to normalisationDevelopment of normalisationSolutions, shifts of policy and the bureaucracyNormalisation arrangements and agreementsConclusionNotesDiplomatic correspondence: case examplesNotesUses of diplomatic notesProtest notesNuclear testingProtests at dumping wastesMaps, boundaries and claimsTerritorial disputesProtest against excessive claimsViolation of airspaceDisputes on the record and the search for supportOther uses of notesSpeaking and other notesNotes used in negotiation of agreementsZERO DRAFT resolutionApplication of the State of Palestine for Admission to Membership in the United NationsQuestions, explanation and lines of actionLetter of 14 December 2009 from Ronald Kirk to Nancy Pelosi, Speaker, US House of RepresentativesCrisesGulf WarInternational Monetary Fund letter to ministers and governors, dated 13 November 2008Disputes and lettersCollective letters: threats and warningsSetting out positionsIdentical lettersColombia letter to the UN security council -19 January 2016^ReportsCeasefire violationsSecre tary-gen eralDraft lettersNegotiation by correspondenceTribunal for the Law of the SeaCoercive correspondenceMemorandaMemoranda: guidelines, principles and policy recommendationsAides-m em oiresAides-memoires and disputesAides-memoires as frameworksNotesInternational treatiesTreatiesConventionsAgreementsExchange of notesDeclarationsOther forms of treatiesFinal actProtocolMemoranda of understandingEmerging trends in MOUsAgreed minutesInterim agreementsFormalities of treatiesLanguageSignatureInitialling and signatureEntry into forceRegistrationDurationReservationNotice of terminationNotesInternational agreements: case examplesArrangements for embassies and consulatesThe EU-Canada Comprehensive Trade Agreement (CETA)Trade negotiation issuesConstruction of a compromise agreementTariff reductionSafeguarding interestsNon-discriminationInstitutional provisionsQualified obligationsDeclarationsReview of issuesInternational loan agreementsAgreements on cultural, educational and technical cooperationNotesThe Paris agreementDelegationsParis: some features of the negotiating processNon-state actors, states and international institutionsEnd run: Paris agreementMain provisions of the Paris agreementParis frameworkImplementation of the Paris agreementClimate: development of multilateral diplomacyUniversalityContent of an agreementInstitutions of multilateral agreementsNotes
 
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