Routledge Handbook of Urban Planning in Africa

I. Colonial urban planning and pre-colonial urban heritage in AfricaAncient, colonial, and postcolonial urban planning in Africa: An introductionThe birth of a town: Indigenous planning and colonial intervention in Bolgatanga, Northern Territories of the Gold CoastIntroductionThe domestic unit and its cycle of developmentFrom the first explorers to the birth of the 'town'ConclusionNotesReferencesHistory of the urban planning of the city of Zinder in the Niger RepublicIntroductionContextual background and methodologyBackgroundIssuesMethodologyResultsInstitutional and regulatory framework and urban planning actors in ZinderSpatial dynamics in ZinderThe organization of the ancient city of BirniFirst sketch of planning of colonial periodThe first serviced plots of the city of Zinder of the 1970sUrban development plan (UDP) of 1980Parcelling out without urban services from 2000 to 2017DiscussionZinder, fortified town with traditional architectureJuxtaposition of the colonial city with ancient fabricsLack of synergy between urban planning actors in ZinderPlanning objectives partially achieved in UnderConclusionNotesReferencesMise en valeur and repopulation in colonial rural development in French MoroccoIntroductionCentre, periphery, and resource extractionThe colonization corridor in the GharbWater, technology, and rural modernityHousing the workforce: The Service de I'Urbanisme in the countrysideConclusionNotesReferencesInfrastructure and urban planning: The port and city of Algiers under French colonial rule, 19th-20th centuryIntroductionPorts as strategic areas for the colonial conquest of AlgeriaThe development of the port of Algiers: A modernizing benefit to the cityMaritime docks: A new fagade for AlgiersThe Chamber of Commerce of Algiers and the port-city governance: Power issues and territorial strugglesThe city authority in port planning: A restricted interventionThe port in urban planning projects: The marginal areaThe city of Algiers today, towardsa marketization of port area?ConclusionNotesReferencesLiving in Lourenco Marques in the early 20th century: Urban planning, development, and well-beingIntroductionGardening the city: Creating beautiful, pledging for health, promoting public spaces, and leisure areasUrbanization, sanitation, and health measures: Finding a common path for a social segregation politicsConclusionAcknowledgementNotesReferencesColonizing and infrastructuring the Angolan territory through colonial settlements: The case of the Cela settlementIntroductionOn Angola's colonizationThe Cela settlementNeo-colonialism?ConclusionNotesReferencesDiamang's urban project: Between the Peace of Versailles and the Colonial ActIntroductionFilling the void: Diamang's arrival in LundaOccupation strategy: A pioneer in the edge of AngolaAn absence of Africa in Africa: Settlements for European employeesStabilizing workforce: Settlements for African workersA sovereignty concern: Transcolonial networksConclusionNotesReferencesII. Post-colonial urban planning in AfricaLocal governance and urban planning: Centralization, de-concentration, and decentralization in AfricaIntroductionLusophone African countriesAnalytical frameworkCentralized, de-concentrated, and decentralized local governance: Results, analysis, and discussionThe spatial planning system: Centralized, de-concentrated, and decentralizedConclusionNotesReferencesThe resilience, adaptability, and transformation of the South African planning professionIntroductionResilience and the adaptive cycleHistory of the South African planning professionResilience of the planning professionConclusionsAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesSetting standards and competencies for plannersIntroductionReasons for changeThe planning competencies literatureSome historyThe Bloemfontein competenciesSACPLAN's competenciesChanges in the implementation environmentCompetencies needed in South AfricaConclusionNotesReferencesAfrican design and CIAM expansion after the Charter of AthensIntroductionCIAMs and the Charter of AthensPost-war designers and CIAM geographic expansionCIAM 9 on the African "habitat" and its designConclusionNotesReferencesTo survey, control, and design: Doxiadis and Fathy on Africa's future and identity (1959-1963)IntroductionThe developmental approach of Constantinos DoxiadisThe city of the future and the African turnHassan Fathy and the role of the African continentDynapolis in AfricaFrom infrastructure to EcumenopolisConclusionNotesReferencesNew towns in Algeria: Planned process to control the accelerated urbanization, case of Sidi Abdellah and Ali MendjeliIntroductionUrbanization in AlgeriaNew towns policy in AlgeriaNew town created according to the descending procedure: The case of Sidi AbdellahPresentation and situation of the new city Sidi AbdellahCreation conditions of the new city Sidi AbdellahPlanning and implementation process of the new city Sidi AbdeiiahExecution process of the new city Sidi AbdeiiahNew town created according to the ascending procedure: Case of Ali MendjeliReasons for the creation of the new city Aii MendjeliEvolution of the population of ConstantinePresentation and situation of the new city Ali MendjeliPopulation of the new town Ali Mendjeli: Between prevision and realityPlanning and implementation process of the new city Ali MendjeliExecution process of the new city of Ali MendjeliConclusionNotesReferencesEmergent urbanism in Angola and Mozambique: Management of the unknownIntroductionNotable urbanization and new dynamics taking placeNew emergent towns: Locating and reflectingTowns accelerated by increased circulation: Ressano Garcia and Santa Clara bordersTowns accelerated by new opportunities: 'Natural gas cities' Pemba and SoyoUrban dwellers: Expectations and realities in new townsConclusionsReferencesThe Africanization of public space in South Africa: A moment of opportunityIntroductionChanging citiesChanging public spacesDegradationMitigationAdaptationChanging paradigmsConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesMissed the stop? Incremental upgrading or waiting for housing in Buffalo CityIntroductionThe significance of informal settlement upgrading in South African housing policyBuffalo City: A low-growth, high-inequality environmentMunicipal planning and interventions for the improvement of precarious housing conditionsBuffalo City's housing policy under the paradigm of de-densificationThe provision of interim servicesComing to grips with the persistence of shacksWinning laurels for rollover upgradingFormalization of informal settlements in all sorts of troublesInsufficient project preparation or unsatisfiable requirements?Incompetent contractors or mission impossible?Opportunistic behaviour by shack dwellers or a race that can't be won?Regularization: Ambition and reality of an alternative approach towards informal settlements upgradingBasic tenets of the BCMM Informal Settlement Upgrading Policy and StrategyThe participatory elaboration of upgrading plansResults of the planning exercise: Investment plans and long-term perspectivesStuck in the starting block: The meagre outcomes of the upgrading policyReasons for the failed introduction of incremental upgrading policyInappropriateness of the institutional architectureLack of a political champion for incremental upgradingDestabilizing effects of the public housing complexLack of support for incremental upgrading from national and provincial governmentLimited buy-in and insufficient mobilization of shack dweller communitiesConclusionsNotesReferencesFraming power in co-production engagements in Kampala City, UgandaIntroductionThe unfinished business of power in planningNature of co-productionPower relations in co-production processesStrategies of organizing influence in communitiesMethodological approach and materialsCo-production processes and relations in KampalaAnalysis of the manifestations and framings of power in co-production processesConfiguring power in co-production tools and processesThe utopia of consensualism and the destabilizing role of co-production toolsConclusionNotesReferencesPower-shifts in the organizational landscapes of transport provision: The introduction of BRT in Nairobi and Dar es SalaamIntroductionOrganizational landscapes of transport provision in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam before MRTThe organizational landscape of transport provision in NairobiThe organizational landscape of transport provision in Dar es SalaamTransport provision in heterarchic institutional constellationsBRT: Power-shifts through transformative transport technologyAuthority in transport provision in Nairobi with BRT: OutlookAuthority in transport provision in Dar es Salaam with BRTField configurations through BRTConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesInformality, urban transport infrastructure, and the lessons of history in Accra, GhanaIntroductionVisions of "Modernity": Mobility and Infrastructure in contemporary AccraPlanning a "modern" city: Infrastructural imaginations and the model cityThe Limits of "complete systems": Popular logics and spatial realitiesHistory lessons: Development failures and the limits of modernist visionsSouthern urbanisms: Towards a critical urban planning practiceConclusion: "Looking from" the lorry park to craft grassroots planning visionsNotesReferencesMoroccan towns: Nourishing urban spacesIntroductionThe two townsKasba TadlaTinghirTransformations of food production in the urban contextFields of changeControversial practicesVarious playersSources of frictions and opportunitiesQuestions of hygiene and landNew customers and tasksConclusionNotesReferencesPlanning for less planning: Supporting informal food systems in NairobiIntroductionUrbanization and food securityGlobal framing and urban food security governanceNairobi's urban food security governance and policySocial protection: Cash transfersUrban agricultureNairobi's informal food economyRecommendationsConclusionAcknowledgementReferences
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