Political Representation in Southern Europe and Latin America: Before and After the Great Recession

I. Southern EuropeSouthern Europe and the Eurozone Crisis: Political Representation, Party System Characteristics and the Impact of AusterityIntroductionOverview of Institutional Design: A Comparative PerspectiveElectoral SystemsBreaking the Cyclc(s): The Eurozone Crisis and the Threat to Mainstream PoliticsParty System Format and Types of GovernmentParticipation and Electoral VolatilityConclusionsNotesReferencesThe Study of Political Representation in Greece: Towards New Patterns Following the Economic Crisis?IntroductionThe Context of the Study of Political Representation in GreeceInformal Channels of Political Representation in GreeceA Legitimacy Crisis after the Onset of the Economic Crisis?Studying Political Representation in GreeceThe BeginningsFrom the Period of Stagnation towards the Evolution of the FieldOverview of Projects on Political RepresentationThe Evolution of Descriptive Representation in Greece: Comparing the Period Before and After the Economic CrisisEvidence of Substantive Representation in GreeceThe Greek Political Elite's Attitudes to Europe vis-a-vis those of the ElectorateCandidate-Voter Congruence on Ideological and Attitudinal StancesConcluding RemarksNotesReferencesRepresentation in the Italian ParliamentModes of Representation in Italy: From the Traditional Partycracv to the Crisis of the Early 1990sCitizen Trust in the Italian ParliamentDescriptive Representation: What Changed After 1992?From Snipers to Switchers: The Difficulties of Party Representation in Contemporary ItalyIdeological and Policy Congruence after the CrisisConclusionNotesReferencesPolitical Representation in Portugal Before and After the Great Recession: Legitimation and Ideological Linkages Between Voters and Their RepresentativesIntroductionThe Study of Political Representation in Portugal Before and After the CrisisThe Evolution of Descriptive Representation Before and After the CrisisThe Relationship Between Voters and their Representatives: Trust, Legitimacy and SatisfactionVoter-MP Congruence in Issue Dimensions: Before and After the Great RecessionVoter ami MP Positions on the Economic Left-Right IndexConclusionEpilogue: The General Election of 6 October 2019 and the New Government in PortugalNotesReferencesIt Is Not Just the Economy: How Spanish Established Political Elites Understand the (Political) Crisis and Its EffectsIntroductionA Methodological Note: Interviewing Politicians Using a Qualitative ApproachThe Political Divide ContestedExplanations of the Political DivideExternal FactorsInstitutional FactorsFactors Related to MPsConclusionsNotesReferencesThe Social Profile of Spanish Elites Following the Great RecessionIntroductionThe Effects of the Great Recession on the Spanish Political SystemChanges in the Party SystemSelection of CandidatesRenewal of the ElitesThe Impact of the Great Recession on the Social Profile of the Elite: Changes or Trends?Historical ComparisonNew ParliesThe Possible Effects on Traditional PartiesSocial Disproportion Index: The Congruence Between MPs and CitizensConclusionsEpilogue: The General Elections of 10 November 2019 in SpainNotesReferencesMethodological Challenges in the Study of Political Elites: Some Reflections from Southern EuropeIntroductionAnalysing the Whole Political Elite PopulationAnalysing a Sample of Political ElitesMaximising Answers When Interviewing PoliticiansConclusionsNotesReferencesII. Latin AmericaLatin American Politics Before and Beyond the Commodity Crisis: Representation, Institutional Design and Political CyclesIntroductionOverview of Institutional Designs: A Comparative PerspectiveElectoral SystemsParty System FormatParty Systems in Latin AmericaParty System Polarisation and Ideological OrientationsParticipation aiul Electoral VolatilityPolitical and Economic Cycles in Latin AmericaLatin America’s Economy: Structural ProblemsEconomic Cycles and Their Impact on Latin America’s PoliticsConclusionsParty acronyms and full namesNotesReferencesVenezuela: Changes and Continuities in the Post-Chávez EraIntroductionDefining Political RepresentationEconomic and Political ContextThe Collapse of Venezuela’s EconomyThe Collapse of Venezuela’s Party SystemElite Ideological ChangesCongruenceConclusionsNotesReferencesPolitical Representation Studies in Ecuador: Links between Elites and VotersIntroductionRepresentation and Political Crisis in EcuadorSatisfaction with Democracy and Trust in Representative InstitutionsIdeological and Programmatic CongruenceConclusionsEpilogue: Ecuador’s Current Situation, Summer and Autumn 2019NotesReferencesPolitical Representation in Chile: Electoral Institutions, Elites and VotersIntroductionDemocracy, Authoritarianism and Back AgainVoter and Members of Congress: The Electoral ConnectionElite-Mass Congruence and Chilean DemocracySupport for DemocracyIdeological Self-positionPoverty, Economic Success ami the Role of the StateConclusionEpilogue: Chile’s Current Situation, Summer and Autumn 2019NotesReferencesLatin American Parliamentary Elites: A Methodological ApproachHow to Approach a Survey of Elites?The Beginning of the Parliamentary Elites in Latin America Project from the University of SalamancaEvolution: Advances in the Project and Methodological Decisions TakenMethodological Decisions in Questionnaire DesignMethodological Decisions Relating to the Unit of AnalysisMethodological Decisions Relating to FieldworkMethodological Decisions Relating to Analysis and Data ExploitationMain Contributions and Academic Production ImpactResearch and Methodological Challenges, and a Future AgendaNotesReferencesCitizen Attitudes Towards the Political System: A Crisis of Representation?The Congruence Between Voters and MPs: Trends and Comparative PerspectivesEconomic Crises and Descriptive Representation: The Evolution of RepresentativenessLooking AheadReferences
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